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排序方式: 共有1155条查询结果,搜索用时 78 毫秒
1.
Purification of the Chick Eye Ciliary Neuronotrophic Factor   总被引:37,自引:11,他引:26  
Dissociated 8-day chick embryo ciliary ganglionic neurons will not survive for even 24 h in culture without the addition of specific supplements. One such supplement is a protein termed the ciliary neuronotrophic factor (CNTF) which is present at very high concentrations within intraocular tissues that contain the same muscle cells innervated by ciliary ganglionic neurons in vivo. We describe here the purification of chick eye CNTF by a 2 1/2-day procedure involving the processing of intraocular tissue extract sequentially through DE52 ion-exchange chromatography, membrane ultrafiltration-concentration, sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation, and preparative sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gradient electrophoresis. An aqueous extract of the tissue from 300 eyes will yield about 10-20 micrograms of biologically active, electrophoretically pure CNTF with a specific activity of 7.5 X 10(6) trophic units/mg protein. Purified CNTF has an Mr of 20,400 daltons and an isoelectric point of about 5, as determined by analytical gel electrophoresis. In addition to supporting the survival of ciliary ganglion neurons, purified CNTF also supports the 24-h survival of cultured neurons from certain chick and rodent sensory and sympathetic ganglia. CNTF differs from mouse submaxillary nerve growth factor (NGF) in molecular weight, isoelectric point, inability to be inactivated by antibodies to NGF, ability to support the in vitro survival of the ciliary ganglion neurons, and inability to support that of 8-day chick embryo dorsal root ganglionic neurons. Thus, CNTF represents the first purified neuronotrophic factor which addresses parasympathetic cholinergic neurons.  相似文献
2.
Ageing and vision: structure, stability and function of lens crystallins   总被引:25,自引:0,他引:25  
The -, β- and γ-crystallins are the major protein components of the vertebrate eye lens, -crystallin as a molecular chaperone as well as a structural protein, β- and γ-crystallins as structural proteins. For the lens to be able to retain life-long transparency in the absence of protein turnover, the crystallins must meet not only the requirement of solubility associated with high cellular concentration but that of longevity as well. For proteins, longevity is commonly assumed to be correlated with long-term retention of native structure, which in turn can be due to inherent thermodynamic stability, efficient capture and refolding of non-native protein by chaperones, or a combination of both. Understanding how the specific interactions that confer intrinsic stability of the protein fold are combined with the stabilizing effect of protein assembly, and how the non-specific interactions and associations of the assemblies enable the generation of highly concentrated solutions, is thus of importance to understand the loss of transparency of the lens with age. Post-translational modification can have a major effect on protein stability but an emerging theme of the few studies of the effect of post-translational modification of the crystallins is one of solubility and assembly. Here we review the structure, assembly, interactions, stability and post-translational modifications of the crystallins, not only in isolation but also as part of a multi-component system. The available data are discussed in the context of the establishment, the maintenance and finally, with age, the loss of transparency of the lens. Understanding the structural basis of protein stability and interactions in the healthy eye lens is the route to solve the enormous medical and economical problem of cataract.  相似文献
3.
1987~1991年间4次调查了内蒙古7个群体3 247例优势眼的分布特征。研究结果显示:(1)7个群体中右优势眼出现率约为70%~80%。呼和浩特回族、阿拉善蒙古族右优势眼出现率明显低于其他5个群体;(2)右优势眼出现率无性别间差异;(3)优势眼与惯用手这两个性状间存在一定的联系。 Abstract: A survey on distribution of eye preference of 3247 cases among seven groups in Inner Mongolia were carried out from 1987 to 1991. The results showed that:(1)The right-eye preference showed a frequency of 70%~80% in seven groups. The Hui ethinc group of Huhhot city and Mongols of Alashan League had a obviously lower frequency of this trait than the other five groups.(2)The frequency of this trait showed no sexual signi-ficant difference.(3)There were cor-relations between the eye preference and handedness.  相似文献
4.
Differentiation of embryonic stem cells into retinal neurons   总被引:14,自引:0,他引:14  
Mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells are continuous cell lines derived from the inner mass of blastocysts. Neural progenitors derived from these cells serve as an excellent model for controlled neural differentiation and as such have tremendous potential to understand and treat neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we demonstrate that ES cell-derived neural progenitors express regulatory factors needed for retinal differentiation and that in response to epigenetic cues a subset of them differentiate along photoreceptor lineage. During the differentiation, they activate photoreceptor regulatory genes, suggesting that ES cell-derived neural progenitors recruit mechanisms normally used for photoreceptor differentiation in vivo. These observations suggest that ES cells can serve as an excellent model for understanding mechanisms that regulate specification of retinal neurons and as an unlimited source of neural progenitors for treating degenerative diseases of the retina by cell replacement.  相似文献
5.
Endochitinases (E.C. 3.2.14, chitinase) are believed to be important in the biochemical defense of plants against chitin-containing fungal pathogens. We introduced a gene for class I (basic) tobacco chitinase regulated by Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S-RNA expression signals into Nicotiana sylvestris. The gene was expressed to give mature, enzymatically active chitinase targeted to the intracellular compartment of leaves. Most transformants accumulated extremely high levels of chitinase-up to 120-fold that of non-transformed plants in comparable tissues. Unexpectedly, some transformants exhibited chitinase levels lower than in non-transformed plants suggesting that the transgene inhibited expression of the homologous host gene. Progeny tests indicate this effect is not permanent. High levels of chitinase in transformants did not substantially increase resistance to the chitin-containing fungus Cercospora nicotiana, which causes Frog Eye disease. Therefore class I chitinase does not appear to be the limiting factor in the defense reaction to this pathogen.  相似文献
6.
四眼斑龟消化、呼吸系统的解剖   总被引:12,自引:1,他引:11       下载免费PDF全文
解剖测量了 8只成年四眼斑龟的消化系统和呼吸系统 ,结果表明 :消化管总长 ( 6 0 4 3± 99.2 )mm ,为背甲长的 3 75~ 5 77倍。舌不能伸缩 ;食管扩展性强 ;胃呈囊状 ,被肝叶覆盖 ;小肠较长 ,为消化的主要场所 ,约占消化道总长的 4 8% ;盲肠不发达。肝较大 ,重约 ( 14 12± 8 2 4 )g ,分左、中、右三叶 ,占体重的 6 %左右 ,绿色胆囊位于右叶小肝内 ;胰腺长条形 ,分布于十二指肠肠系膜内。肺长囊形 ,内壁有复杂的间隔 ,把内腔分隔成蜂窝状小室 ,紧贴在背甲的内表面 ,位于肩带和腰带之间 ;气管较长 ,由 6 5~ 85个软骨环连接而成 ;支气管较短 ,由 30~ 4 0个软骨环连接而成  相似文献
7.
棉铃虫蛾复眼光反应特性   总被引:12,自引:4,他引:8       下载免费PDF全文
 用视网膜电位图(electroretinogram,ERG)技术研究了棉铃虫Helicoverpa armigera蛾暗适应过程中对单色光和白光刺激的光感受性变化。结果显示:(1)依ERG振幅大小(峰-峰值),在340~605 nm波谱内有3个大小不等的峰-主峰位于绿 黄光区562 nm,次峰在蓝光区483 nm,第3个峰在近紫外区400 nm,显示其至少有3种感受器;(2)性别、日龄及暗适应时间长短对其光谱敏感性有影响,低龄时雄蛾对单色光刺激较雌蛾敏感,高日龄时相反;1~5日龄内, 3日龄蛾的视网膜电位(ERP)值最高;随暗适应时间延长,其复眼对近紫外区400 nm敏感性明显增加;(3)一定光强度范围内,随单色光和白光光强度增强该蛾复眼的ERP值增大,初期增加较缓,中期较快,呈近似S型曲线,显示其复眼具有较强的光强度自调节和适应机制。  相似文献
8.
夜蛾复眼转化速度与光暗适应的时间关系   总被引:10,自引:1,他引:9       下载免费PDF全文
高慰曾 《昆虫学报》1989,32(3):306-310
 夜行蛾类的复眼,随光、暗适应时间而逐步转化,这种转化是可逆的.以屏蔽色素分布范围的大小为指标来判断复眼的转化速度得以下结果:1.从亮眼到暗眼:亮眼进入暗适应后其屏蔽色素随暗适应时间的增加而逐步向远心端方向集中.屏蔽色素的移动是减速进行的.暗适应开始后的前3分钟,每分钟移动百分率为10.7,当暗到10—15分钟时每分钟移动百分率为4.6,再暗到60—150分钟时每分钟移动百分率为0.7.屏蔽色素移动的速度个体间差异较大,完成全过程大多数个体需150分钟,少数个体只需60分钟,另有个别个体经过270分钟暗适应仍尚未完成全过程.2.从暗眼到亮眼:暗眼受光后,其屏蔽色素随光适应时间的增加而向近心端方向扩散,色素移动速度随时间的增加而减缓.转化全过程约需60分钟.  相似文献
9.
Photoreceptors of cubozoan jellyfish   总被引:8,自引:2,他引:6  
The anatomically sophisticated visual system of the cubozoan jellyfish Carybdea marsupialis is described. Individual cubomedusae have eight complex eyes, each with a cornea, lens, and retina of ciliated photoreceptor cells, eight slit ocelli, and eight dimple ocelli. The photoreceptor cells of the complex eyes are bipolar and resemble vertebrate rod cells. Each photoreceptor has an outer cylindrical light-receptive segment that projects into a vitreous space that separates the lens and the retina, an inner segment rich in pigment granules, and a basal region housing the nucleus. The outer segment is a modified cilium with a 9 + 2 arrangement of microtubules plus stacks of membrane. These stacks of membrane form numerous discs that are oriented transversely to the long axis of the cell. The outer segment is connected to the inner segment by a slender stalk. The basal end of each photoreceptor forms an axon that projects into an underlying layer of interneurons. Each ocellus is composed of ciliated photoreceptor cells containing pigment granules. Rhodopsin-like and opsin-like proteins are found in the membrane stacks of the outer segments of the photoreceptors of the complex eyes. An ultraviolet-sensing opsin-like protein is present in the inner segments and basal regions of some of the photoreceptors of the complex eyes. Rhodopsin-like proteins are also detected in the photoreceptors of the slit ocelli. The cellular lens, composed of crystallin proteins, shows a paucity of organelles and a high concentration of homogeneous cytoplasm. Neurons expressing RFamide (Arg-Phe-amide) comprise a subset of interneurons found beneath the retinas of the complex eyes. RFamide-positive fibers extend from these neurons into the stalks of the rhopalia, eventually entering into the subumbrellar nerve ring. Vision may play a role in the navigation, feeding, and reproduction of the cubomedusae.  相似文献
10.
锯缘青蟹复眼的形态和超微结构   总被引:8,自引:0,他引:8       下载免费PDF全文
对锯缘青蟹(Scylla serrata)的复眼做了电镜观察。扫描电镜下,半球形复眼的背面有一拇指状的无小眼区。透射电镜下,小眼为十足目短尾类特有的长六边形;复眼内小眼的感光系统包括了11个小网膜细胞(RCs),4个RCs位于感光部分的远端,7个RCs构成了感光系统的近端主体;上下两群细胞连接处清晰显示“4 7”且有局部交错的结构。这与三疣梭子蟹和罗氏沼虾溞状幼体的文献记述相似,而与蜘蛛蟹和中华绒螯蟹的“1 7”结构不同,可能与它们对视觉依赖程度差异有关。  相似文献
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