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1.
生态位态势理论与扩充假说   总被引:132,自引:1,他引:131       下载免费PDF全文
朱春全 《生态学报》1997,17(3):324-332
生态位态势理论,即从个体到生物圈,无论是自然还是社会中的生物单元都具有生态和势两个方面的属性,态是指生物的状态,是过去生长发育,学习,社会经济发展以及与环境相互和积累的结果;势是指生物单元对环境的现实影响力或支配力,始能量和物质变换的速率,生产力,生物增长率,经济增长率,占据新生境的能力,生物单元态的变化一般呈“S”型曲线,而势的变化则呈“钟”型曲线,特定生态系统中某生物单元的生态位即是该生物单元  相似文献
2.
中国森林植被碳库的动态变化及其意义   总被引:103,自引:0,他引:103  
利用1949年至1998年间7次森林资源清查资料,结合使用森林生物量实测资料,采用改良的生物量换算因子法,推算了中国50年来森林碳库和平均碳密度的变化,分析了中国森林植被的CO2源汇功能,结果表明,70年代中期以前,主要由于森林砍伐等人为作用,中国森林碳库和碳密度都是减少的,碳储量减少了0.62PgC(Pg=10^15g),年均减少约0.024PgC。之后,呈增加趋势。在最近的20多年中,森林碳库由70年代末期的4.38PgC增加到1998年的4.75PgC,共增加0.37PgC,年平均增加0.022PgC。这种增加主要由人工造林增加所致。20多年来,由于人工林增加导致碳汇增加0.45PgC,年平均增加吸收0.021PgC/a。人工林的平均碳密度也显增加,共增加了约一倍。这除了人工成林增多外,气温上升和CO2浓度施肥也可能是促进森林生长的重要因子。  相似文献
3.
Since the 1920s, population geneticists have had measures that describe how genetic variation is distributed spatially within a species' geographical range. Modern genetic survey techniques frequently yield information on the evolutionary relationships among the alleles or haplotypes as well as information on allele frequencies and their spatial distributions. This evolutionary information is often expressed in the form of an estimated haplotype or allele tree. Traditional statistics of population structure, such as F statistics, do not make use of evolutionary genealogical information, so it is necessary to develop new statistical estimators and tests that explicitly incorporate information from the haplotype tree. One such technique is to use the haplotype tree to define a nested series of branches (clades), thereby allowing an evolutionary nested analysis of the spatial distribution of genetic variation. Such a nested analysis can be performed regarding the geographical sampling locations either as categorical or continuous variables (i.e. some measure of spatial distance). It is shown that such nested phylogeographical analyses have more power to detect geographical associations than traditional, nonhistorical analyses and, as a consequence, allow a broader range of gene-flow parameters to be estimated in a precise fashion. More importantly, such nested analyses can discriminate between phylogeographical associations due to recurrent but restricted gene flow vs. historical events operating at the population level (e.g. past fragmentation, colonization, or range expansion events). Restricted gene flow and historical events can be intertwined, and the cladistic analyses can reconstruct their temporal juxtapositions, thereby yielding great insight into both the evolutionary history and population structure of the species. Examples are given that illustrate these properties, concentrating on the detection of range expansion events.  相似文献
4.
5.
Zebrafish Genetic Map with 2000 Microsatellite Markers   总被引:33,自引:0,他引:33  
The zebrafish is the first vertebrate organism used for large-scale genetic screens seeking genes critical to development. These screens have been quite successful, with more than 1800 recessive mutations discovered that speak to morphogenesis of the vertebrate embryo. The cloning of the mutant genes depends on a dense genetic map. The 2000 markers we present here, using microsatellite (CA) repeats, provides 1.2-cM average resolution. One centimorgan in zebrafish is about 0. 74 megabase, so, for many mutations, these markers are close enough to begin positional cloning by YAC walks.  相似文献
6.
Phylogeography and historical ecology of the North Atlantic intertidal   总被引:28,自引:0,他引:28  
Abstract Recent glaciation covered the full extent of rocky intertidal habitat along the coasts of New England and the Canadian Maritimes. To test whether this glaciation in fact caused wholesale extinction of obligate rocky intertidal invertebrates, and thus required a recolonization from Europe, we compared American and European populations using allelic diversity and techniques adapted from coalescent theory. Mitochondrial DNA sequences were collected from amphi-Atlantic populations of three cold-temperate obligate rocky intertidal species (a barnacle, Semibalanus balanoides , and two gastropods, Nucella lapillus and Littorina obtusata ) and three cold-temperate habitat generalist species (a seastar, Asterias rubens ; a mussel, Mytilus edulis , and an isopod, Idotea balthica ). For many of these species we were able to estimate the lineage-specific mutation rate based on trans-Arctic divergences between Pacific and Atlantic taxa. These data indicate that some obligate rocky intertidal taxa have colonized New England from European populations. However, the patterns of persistence in North America indicate that other life-history traits, including mechanisms of dispersal, may be more important for surviving dramatic environmental and climatic change.  相似文献
7.
Expansive growth of plant cells is controlled principally by processes that loosen the wall and enable it to expand irreversibly. The central role of wall relaxation for cell expansion is reviewed. The most common methods for assessing the extension properties of plant cell walls ( wall extensibility') are described, categorized and assessed critically. What emerges are three fundamentally different approaches which test growing cells for their ability (a) to enlarge at different values of turgor, (b) to induce wall relaxation, and (c) to deform elastically or plastically in response to an applied tensile force. Analogous methods with isolated walls are similarly reviewed. The results of these different assays are related to the nature of plant cell growth and pertinent biophysical theory. I argue that the extensibilities' measured by these assays are fundamentally different from one another and that some are more pertinent to growth than others.  相似文献
8.
Possible involvement of jasmonates in various morphogenic events   总被引:23,自引:0,他引:23  
Jasmonates (jasmonic acid and related compounds) seem to be involved in various morphogenic events of plants, such as tuberization (potato, yam and Jerusalem artichoke), tuberous root formation (sweet potato), bulb formation (onion and garlic), determination of plant structure (soybean) and thigmomorphogenesis (coiling of tendrils of Bryonia dioica ). The involvement of jasmonates in tuberization in these plants was inferred from their ability to induce tubers in vitro, and from changes in the levels of endogenous jasmonates during the growth of the plants, which can account for the initiation of tuberization. As to potato tuberization, jasmonic acid (JA) and its methyl ester (JA-Me) have strong tuber-inducing activity. These compounds seem to exert their tuber-inducing effects by elicting the expansion of cells, because JA and JA-Me are capable of causing the expansion of cells in potato tubers. The JA-induced expansion of cells is attributable to both an increase in osmotic pressure due to the accumulation of sucrose and changes in cell wall architecture that appear to affect the extensibility of the wall. And, moreover, the synthesis of cellulose might be indispensable for the JA-induced expansion. The tuberization and the expansion of cells induced by JA always involve the reorientation of cortical microtubules (MTs), suggesting that JA controls the direction of cell expansion by changing the arrangement of MTs. However, the reorientation of MTs itself seems to be insufficient for the induction of expansion of cells.
Involvement of jasmonates in bulb formation and tuberous root formation is presumed from the fact that JA is able to induce these in vitro. The exact nature of the control that the jasmonates exert on morphogenesis remains to be elucidated.  相似文献
9.
Intra-deme molecular diversity in spatially expanding populations   总被引:21,自引:0,他引:21  
We report here a simulation study examining the effect of a recent spatial expansion on the pattern of molecular diversity within a deme. We first simulate a range expansion in a virtual world consisting in a two-dimensional array of demes exchanging a given proportion of migrants (m) with their neighbors. The recorded demographic and migration histories are then used under a coalescent approach to generate the genetic diversity in a sample of genes. We find that the shape of the gene genealogies and the overall pattern of diversity within demes depend not only on the age of the expansion but also on the level of gene flow between neighboring demes, as measured by the product Nm, where N is the size of a deme. For small Nm values (< approximately 20 migrants sent outwards per generation), a substantial proportion of coalescent events occur early in the genealogy, whereas with larger levels of gene flow, most coalescent events occur around the time of the onset of the spatial expansion. Gene genealogies are star shaped, and mismatch distributions are unimodal after a range expansion for large Nm values. In contrast, gene genealogies present a mixture of both very short and very long branch lengths, and mismatch distributions are multimodal for small Nm values. It follows that statistics used in tests of selective neutrality like Tajima's D statistic or Fu's F(S) statistic will show very significant negative values after a spatial expansion only in demes with high Nm values. In the context of human evolution, this difference could explain very simply the fact that analyses of samples of mitochondrial DNA sequences reveal multimodal mismatch distributions in hunter-gatherers and unimodal distributions in post-Neolithic populations. Indeed, the current simulations show that a recent increase in deme size (resulting in a larger Nm value) is sufficient to prevent recent coalescent events and thus lead to unimodal mismatch distributions, even if deme sizes (and therefore Nm values) were previously much smaller. The fact that molecular diversity within deme is so dependent on recent levels of gene flow suggests that it should be possible to estimate Nm values from samples drawn from a single deme.  相似文献
10.
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