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微卫星分子标记在濒危动物保护遗传学研究中的应用   总被引:18,自引:1,他引:17       下载免费PDF全文
黄磊  王义权 《生物多样性》2004,12(5):528-533
微卫星DNA广泛分布于真核生物基因组中,具有多态性高、共显性遗传、选择中性、易于操作等特点,是一种极具应用价值的分子遗传标记,近年来在濒危动物保护遗传学研究中得到越来越多的应用。微卫星DNA高度多态性提供的高分辨率遗传信启,使其不仅适合个体水平的亲子鉴定与交配系统研究,而且也已成为种群遗传结构与多样性分析的有效分子标记。微卫星分析所需的DNA量极少,用非损伤性方法获取的极少量样品或陈旧样品就能用于有效分析,方便了濒危动物野外调查工作的开展,并且可以利用年代久远的馆藏历史标本揭示种群的重要历史进程。另外,某些微卫星DNA大小在近缘物种间可相互区分,这使得部分物种的DNA分子鉴别将更为简便。但微卫星分子标记的座位筛选和特异引物开发耗时费力,一定程度上限制了其广泛应用。针对不同的研究目的选择合适的分子标记方法将有助于更好的揭示问题本质。  相似文献
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 Using nine chloroplast simple sequence.repeats (cpSSRs) markers, we evaluated haplotypic variation within and among natural populations of Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) in order to shed light on the history of this species. Seven out of the nine cpSSRs analysed were polymorphic, giving a total of 24 different variants. The 24 variants combined in 34 different haplotypes. The populations which generally showed the lowest level of haplotypic diversity are those located in Portugal. The Landes (France) and Pantelleria (Italy) populations represent the two main reservoirs of haplotypic diversity. The proportion of genetic differentiation among populations, estimated using Rst, which is a measure based upon a strict stepwise mutation model, was 0.235. The high level of differentiation was also confirmed by the AMOVA analysis (ΦST=0.254, P<0.001). Four main groups of populations were identified on the basis of Principal Component Analysis, with the differences being statistically significant (ΦCT=0.299, P<0.001). Based on our results the presence of refugia located in the South of Portugal, previously proposed for this species, may be excluded, and a different possible recolonization process of Maritime pine in the post-glacial period has been proposed. Populations from North Africa and France might have represented a starting point of the recolonization process of Portugal and of the Italian part of the natural range, respectively. This hypothesis seems to be confirmed by the analysis of the distribution of the pairwise differences among individuals within populations: Landes and Pantelleria populations showed a bimodal distribution, as would be expected for ancient gene pools. Received: 5 November 1997 / Accepted: 5 January 1998  相似文献
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Accounts of the evolutionary past have as much in common with works of narrative history as they do with works of science. Awareness of the narrative character of evolutionary writing leads to the discovery of a host of fascinating and hitherto unrecognized problems in the representation of evolutionary history, problems associated with the writing of narrative. These problems include selective attention, narrative perspective, foregrounding and backgrounding, differential resolution, and the establishment of a canon of important events. The narrative aspects of evolutionary writing, however, which promote linearity and cohesiveness in conventional stories, conflict with the underlying chronicle of evolution, which is not linear, but branched, and which does not cohere, but diverges. The impulse to narrate is so great, however, and is so strongly reinforced by traditional schemes of taxonomic attention, that natural historians have more often abandoned the diverging tree than they have abandoned the narrative mode of representation. If we are to understand the true nature of the evolutionary past then we must adopt tree thinking, and develop new and creative ways, both narrative and non-narrative, of telling the history of life.  相似文献
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Genetic changes in the population structure of brown trout Salmo trutta in the eastern Pyrenees were monitored during the 1990s. Stocking with cultivated exogenous fish has resulted in introgressed populations where those with higher introgression coefficients also have the highest values of heterozygosity. Nevertheless, this increase of local diversity reflects a decrease of genetic differentiation between populations and loss of native alleles. These changes obscure native gene pools and modify evolutionary distinctions among native brown trout populations.  相似文献
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Phylogeography and phyloecology of dorid nudibranchs (Mollusca, Gastropoda)   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
Dorid nudibranchs exhibit a number of anatomical and physiological adaptations that reflect a complex evolutionary history. The lack of a fossil record means that all available information on the evolution of this group comes from phylogenetic evidence. Deep imbalances in the phylogeny of dorid nudibranchs indicates that this group has probably undergone random extinction events and subsequent speciation of derived lineages. Sister-group relationships between eastern Pacific, Atlantic and tropical Indo-Pacific taxa [(eastern Pacific, Atlantic) Indo-Pacific], repeated throughout several lineages of dorid nudibranchs, provide solid evidence of two consecutive vicariant events: (1) the closure of communication between the tropical Indo-Pacific region and the Atlantic and eastern Pacific, which began during the Oligocene–Miocene transition and was completed with the formation of the East Pacific Barrier, and (2) the rise of the Panama isthmus. The absence of solid dates for the effective isolation of the eastern Pacific and the central Pacific does not allow estimations of the time of diversification of dorid nudibranchs. Phylogenetic evidence indicates that omnivorism and de novo synthesis of chemical defences are probably the plesiomorphic conditions in dorid nudibranchs. It is also likely that all sponge-feeding cryptobranch dorids have a common ancestor, but other cases of sponge feeding in phanerobranch dorids have arisen independently. The numerous instances in which de novo synthesis was replaced by sequestration of chemicals from the prey are evidence of a great metabolic versatility in dorid nudibranchs.  © 2004 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society , 2004, 83 , 551–559.  相似文献
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Structural aspects of the shortgrass steppe plant community, functional groups, and species populations were examined in response to long-term heavy grazing and exclosure from grazing, contiguous wet or dry years, and an environmental gradient of topography. Of the three factors, relatively greater differences in community similarity were observed between catena positions, particularly on the ungrazed treatments. Grazing was intermediate between catena position and short-term weather in shaping plant community structure. Grazed treatments and ridgetops had a less variable species composition through fluctuations in weather.An increase with grazing of the dominant, heavily grazed species was observed. Basal cover and density of total species was also greater on grazed sites. The more uniform grazing lawn structure of the grazed plant communities had an influence on segregation of plant populations along topographical gradients. Segregation was less on grazed catenas, but diversity and the abundance of introduced and opportunistic-colonizer species was also less.Although the shortgrass steppe community was relatively invariant, less abundant species were dynamic and interactions occurred with respect to grazing, weather, and catena position. The effects of grazing may be mitigated by favorable growing seasons but magnified in unfavorable years in populations that are adapted to favorable sites. Grazing can be considered a disturbance at the level of the individual but it may or may not be a disturbance at the level of the population, and it is not a disturbance at the level of the community in this particular grassland.  相似文献
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An evolutionary framework for the polar regions   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
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We examine the evolution of mesic forest ecosystems in the Pacific Northwest of North America using a statistical phylogeography approach in four animal and two plant lineages. Three a priori hypotheses, which explain the disjunction in the mesic forest ecosystem with either recent dispersal or ancient vicariance, are tested with phylogenetic and coalescent methods. We find strong support in three amphibian lineages (Ascaphus spp., and Dicampton spp., and Plethodon vandykei and P. idahoensis) for deep divergence between coastal and inland populations, as predicted by the ancient vicariance hypothesis. Unlike the amphibians, the disjunction in other Pacific Northwest lineages is likely due to recent dispersal along a northern route. Topological and population divergence tests support the northern dispersal hypothesis in the water vole (Microtus richardsoni) and northern dispersal has some support in both the dusky willow (Salix melanopsis) and whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis). These analyses demonstrate that genetic data sampled from across an ecosystem can provide insight into the evolution of ecological communities and suggest that the advantages of a statistical phylogeographic approach are most pronounced in comparisons across multiple taxa in a particular ecosystem. Genetic patterns in organisms as diverse as willows and salamanders can be used to test general regional hypotheses, providing a consistent metric for comparison among members of an ecosystem with disparate life-history traits.  相似文献
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