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1.
The chicken genome and the developmental biologist   总被引:5,自引:0,他引:5  
Recently the initial draft sequence of the chicken genome was released. The reasons for sequencing the chicken were to boost research and applications in agriculture and medicine, through its use as a model of vertebrate development. In addition, the sequence of the chicken would provide an important anchor species in the phylogenetic study of genome evolution. The chicken genome project has its roots in a decade of map building by genetic and physical mapping methods. Chicken genetic markers for map building have generally depended on labour intensive screening procedures. In recent years this has all changed with the availability of over 450,000 EST sequences, a draft sequence of the entire chicken genome and a map of over 1 million SNPs. Clearly, the future for the chicken genome and developmental biology is an exciting one. Through the integration of these resources, it will be possible to solve challenging scientific questions exploiting the power of a chicken model. In this paper we review progress in chicken genomics and discuss how the new tools and information on the chicken genome can help the developmental biologists now and in the future.  相似文献
2.
The current theory of felid coat pattern evolution proposes that the primitive pattern is one of relatively large spots that break down into smaller spots (here denoted flecks) and rosettes while at the same time leading to various striped patterns as sidelines. We have coded the coat patterns of felids into uniform, flecks, rosettes, vertical stripes, small blotches and blotches and show by mapping these character states onto phylogenies of the family that the current theory is flawed. Instead, the primitive pattern appears to be flecks and it is from this type that nearly all other types have developed. The robustness of this hypothesis is shown by the fact that it remains unchanged regardless of which of several quite different, competing phylogenies of the family is used. The pattern of transformations reconstructed is not predicted by current theories of pattern formation and we suggest that modellers pay closer attention to the phylogenetic histories of the features that they model.  相似文献
3.
We consider character sequences evolving on a phylogenetic tree under the TKF91 model. We show that as the sequence lengths tend to infinity the topology of the phylogenetic tree and the edge lengths are determined by any one of (a) the alignment of sequences (b) the collection of sequence lengths. We also show that the probability of any homology structure on a collection of sequences related by a TKF91 process on a tree is independent of the root location.  相似文献
4.
What was the first living molecule – RNA or protein?This question embodies the major disagreement instudies on the origin of life. The fact that incontemporary cells RNA polymerase is a protein andpeptidyl transferase consists of RNA suggests theexistence of a mutual catalytic dependence betweenthese two kinds of biopolymers. I suggest that thisdependence is a `frozen accident', a remnant from thefirst living system. This system is proposed to be acombination of an RNA molecule capable of catalyzingamino acid polymerization and the resulting proteinfunctioning as an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Thespecificity of the protein synthesis is thought to beachieved by the composition of the surrounding mediumand the specificity of the RNA synthesis – by Watson– Crick base pairing. Despite its apparent simplicity,the system possesses a great potential to evolve intoa primitive ribosome and further to life, as it isseen today. This model provides a possible explanationfor the origin of the interaction between nucleicacids and protein. Based on the suggested system, Ipropose a new definition of life as a system ofnucleic acid and protein polymerases with a constantsupply of monomers, energy and protection.  相似文献
5.
We present a model to investigate why some bird species rearthe nestlings of brood parasites in spite of suffering largereductions in their own immediate fitness. Of particular interestis the case in which hosts rear only the parasite's young, allof their own offspring having been ejected or destroyed by theparasite. We investigate the conditions for the evolution ofretaliation by brood parasites against hosts that eject theiryoung, as well as the evolution of nonejection by hosts. Retaliationby cuckoos can evolve, despite potentially benefiting otherbrood parasites, if rates of ejection by hosts are neither toohigh nor too low, and if depredated nests are reparasitizedat a high rate by the depredating cuckoo. The presence of aretaliatory cuckoo then eases the conditions for the evolutionof hosts to accept and rear cuckoo offspring. A key conditionfavoring the evolution of non-ejection is that nonejectors enjoylower rates of parasitism in later clutches compared to ejectors.This requires that cuckoos reparasitize the clutches of ejectorsat relatively high rates and that nonejectors can rear a clutchof their own following the rearing of a cuckoo nestling. Ifthese conditions are not met, it pays hosts to eject cuckoonestlings even if the cuckoo retaliates. The model can explainwhy nonejection is relatively easy to evolve in cases in whichthe host young are reared alongside those of the cuckoo, suchas in cowbirds, and shows how hosts can resist invasion by parasiticcuckoos. The model predicts that retaliatory brood parasitessuch as the cuckoo have good memory for the location and statusof nests in their territory. Hosts of retaliatory cuckoos whosenestlings destroy the host clutch are predicted to have longbreeding seasons or the ability to attempt more than one clutchper season. Our model of retaliation may have wider applicationsto host-parasite relationships, virulence, and immunity.  相似文献
6.
Kidwell MG  Evgen'ev MB 《Genetica》1999,107(1-3):103-111
Model organisms have proved to be highly informative for many types of genetic studies involving ‘conventional’ genes. The results have often been successfully generalized to other closely related organisms and also, perhaps surprisingly frequently, to more distantly related organisms. Because of the wealth of previous knowledge and their availability and convenience, model organisms were often the species of choice for many of the earlier studies of transposable elements. The question arises whether the results of genetic studies of transposable elements in model organisms can be extrapolated in the same ways as those of conventional genes? A number of observations suggest that special care needs to be taken in generalizing the results from model organisms to other species. A hallmark of many transposable elements is their ability to amplify rapidly in species genomes. Rapid spread of a newly invaded element throughout a species range has also been demonstrated. The types and genomic copy numbers of transposable elements have been shown to differ greatly between some closely related species. Horizontal transfer of transposable elements appears to be more frequent than for nonmobile genes. Furthermore, the population structure of some model organisms has been subject to drastic recent changes that may have some bearing on their transposable element genomic complements. In order to initiate discussion of this question, several case studies of transposable elements in well-studied Drosophila species are presented.  相似文献
7.
In this paper we report the identification and characterization of a DNA region containing putative mcpA-like gene coding for a Methyl Accepting Chemotaxis Protein (MCP) and belonging to a Burkholderia endosymbiont of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Gigaspora margarita. A genomic library of total DNA extracted from the fungal spores, representative of the bacterial genome, was used to investigate the prokaryotic genome. PCR experiments with primers designed on the Burkholderia mcpA-like gene and Southern blot analysis demonstrate that they actually belong to the genome of G. margarita endosymbiont. The expression of the mcpA-like gene in the fungal spores was demonstrated by RT-PCR experiments. The detailed comparative analysis of the bacterial MCPs available in databases allowed to draw a possible evolutionary pathway leading to the present-day mcpA genes. Accordingly, the ancestor of the mcpA-like genes was the result of a domain shuffling event involving two ancestral mini-genes encoding a PAS-PAC and a MA domains, respectively, followed by the elongation of the PAS-PAC moiety. The following evolutionary divergence involved not only point mutations, but also larger rearrangements (insertions and deletions) at the 3′ end of the gene.  相似文献
8.
In this paper, we present a general selection-mutation model of evolution on a one-dimensional continuous fitness space. The formulation of our model includes both the classical diffusion approach to mutation process as well as an alternative approach based on an integral operator with a mutation kernel. We show that both approaches produce fundamentally equivalent results. To illustrate the suitability of our model, we focus its analytical study into its application to recent experimental studies of in vitro viral evolution. More specifically, these experiments were designed to test previous theoretical predictions regarding the effects of multiple infection dynamics (i.e., coinfection and superinfection) on the virulence of evolving viral populations. The results of these experiments, however, did not match with previous theory. By contrast, the model we present here helps to understand the underlying viral dynamics on these experiments and makes new testable predictions about the role of parameters such the time between successive infections and the growth rates of resident and invading populations.  相似文献
9.
Summary Models of optimal carbon allocation schedules have influenced the way plant ecologists think about life history evolution, particularly for annual plants. The present study asks (1) how, within the framework of these models, are their predictions affected by within-season variation in mortality and carbon assimilation rates?; and (2) what are the consequences of these prediction changes for empirical tests of the models? A companion paper examines the basic assumptions of the models themselves. I conducted a series of numerical experiments with a simple carbon allocation model. Results suggest that both qualitative and quantitative predictions can sometimes be sensitive to parameter values for net assimilation rate and mortality: for some parameter values, both the time and size at onset of reproduction, as well as the number of reproductive intervals, vary considerably as a result of small variations in these parameters. For other parameter values, small variations in the parameters result in only small changes in predicted phenotype, but these have very large fitness consequences. Satisfactory empirical tests are thus likely to require much accuracy in parameter estimates. The effort required for parameter estimation imposes a practical constraint on empirical tests, making large multipopulation comparisons impractical. It may be most practical to compare the predicted and observed fitness consequences of variation in the timing of onset of reproduction.  相似文献
10.
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