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Since World War II the greater Saldanha Bay lagoon system, South Africa, has been an important Gracilaria producer. Two agar factories, built in the 1960's, used Gracilaria from Saldanha Bay as their raw material. In the early 1970's the industry was destroyed as a result of dredging and marine construction operations to establish a harbor in the bay for loading ore. These environmental changes destroyed stocks and prevented the previously significant beachings of the seaweed from occurring. After a few years of no or very low commercial production, the resource slowly started to recover. The size of Gracilaria drifts increased over the following eight years to approximately one-third of the original output. This trend seems to continue. Although the stocks and resultant drifts are unlikely to recover fully to their original quantity, current production is already sufficient to ensure re-establishment of a seaweed industry in Saldanha Bay. This could have considerable socio-economic impact on the area.  相似文献
How City Dwellers Affect Their Resource Hinterland   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
This article links databases on household consumption, industrial production, economic turnover, employment, water use, and greenhouse gas emissions into a spatially explicit model. The causal sequence starts with households demanding a certain consumer basket. This demand requires production in a complex supply-chain network of interdependent industry sectors. Even though the household may be confined to a particular geographical location, say a dwelling in a city, the industries producing the indirect inputs for the commodities that the household demands will be dispersed all over Australia and probably beyond. Industrial production represents local points of economic activity, employment, water use, and emissions that have local economic, social, and environmental impacts. The consumer basket of a typical household is followed in Australia's two largest cities—Sydney and Melbourne—along its upstream supply chains and to numerous production sites within Australia. The spatial spread is described by means of a detailed regional interindustry model. Through industry-specific emissions profiles, industrial production is then translated into local impacts. We show that annually a typical household is responsible for producing approximately 80 tonnes of greenhouse gas emissions, uses around 3 million liters of water, causes about A$140,000 to circulate in the wider economy, and provides labor worth just under three full-time employment-years. We also introduce maps that visually demonstrate how a very localized household affects the environment across an entire continent. Our model is unprecedented in its spatial and sectoral detail, at least for Australia.  相似文献
旅游活动对卧龙自然保护区社区居民的经济影响   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1       下载免费PDF全文
旅游活动是提高自然保护区社区居民收入、缓解保护区与社区矛盾、促进生物多样性保护的重要途径之一.为评价旅游活动对自然保护区社区经济提升的现实效果,以卧龙自然保护区为案例,采用问卷调查的方法,通过分析保护区内旅游从业人员的经济收入、就业机会以及收入分配等,从一定程度上揭示旅游活动对该保护区社区居民的直接经济影响.结果表明,生态旅游可以给保护区的部分居民带来一定的经济收入,但这部分收入总量较低:保护区内的居民多从事一些较简单的旅游相关活动,对技能要求较高的活动则大多由来自保护区外的人员从事:旅游活动带来的经济收入不论是在当地相关从业人员之间还是在当地人与来自保护区外的人员之间的分配都表现出了一定的不公平性,居住位置、启动资金和技术技能是造成这种不公平现象的主要原因.依据以上调查及分析结果,论文提出了开发旅游项目、建立培训机制、设立专项基金以及逐步移民等相应对策.  相似文献
Biological invasions by nonindigenous species (NIS) can have adverse effects on economically important goods and services, and sometimes result in an ‘invisible tax’ on natural resources (e.g. reduced yield). The combined economic costs of NIS may be significant, with implications for environmental policy and resource management; yet economic impact assessments are rare at a national scale. Impacts of nuisance NIS may be direct (e.g. loss of hardwood trees) or indirect (e.g. alteration of ecosystem services provided by growing hardwoods). Moreover, costs associated with these effects may be accrued to resources and services with clear ‘market’ values (e.g. crop production) and to those with more ambiguous, ‘non-market’ values (e.g. aesthetic value of intact forest). We characterised and projected economic costs associated with nuisance NIS in Canada, through a combination of case-studies and an empirical model derived from 21 identified effects of 16 NIS. Despite a severe dearth of available data, characterised costs associated with ten NIS in Canadian fisheries, agriculture and forestry totalled $187 million Canadian (CDN) per year. These costs were dwarfed by the ‘invisible tax’ projected for sixteen nuisance NIS found in Canada, which was estimated at between $13.3 and $34.5 billion CDN per year. Canada remains highly vulnerable to new nuisance NIS, but available manpower and financial resources appear insufficient to deal with this problem. An erratum to this article is available at .  相似文献
Wu F 《Transgenic research》2006,15(3):277-289
Genetically modified (GM) Bt corn, through the pest protection that it confers, has lower levels of mycotoxins: toxic and carcinogenic chemicals produced as secondary metabolites of fungi that colonize crops. In some cases, the reduction of mycotoxins afforded by Bt corn is significant enough to have an economic impact, both in terms of domestic markets and international trade. In less developed countries where certain mycotoxins are significant contaminants of food, Bt corn adoption, by virtue of its mycotoxin reduction, may even improve human and animal health. This paper describes an integrated assessment model that analyzes the economic and health impacts of two mycotoxins in corn: fumonisin and aflatoxin. It was found that excessively strict standards of these two mycotoxins could result in global trade losses in the hundreds of millions $US annually, with the US, China, and Argentina suffering the greatest losses. The paper then discusses the evidence for Bt corn’s lower levels of contamination of fumonisin and aflatoxin, and estimates economic impacts in the United States. A total benefit of Bt corn’s reduction of fumonisin and aflatoxin in the US was estimated at $23 million annually. Finally, the paper examines the potential policy impacts of Bt corn’s mycotoxin reduction, on nations that are making a decision on whether to allow commercialization of this genetically modified crop.  相似文献
张润志  梁宏斌  张广学 《昆虫学报》1999,42(-1):130-140
The Russian wheat aphid (RWA), Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko), has become a worldwide cereal pest with its dispersion to over 30 countries in this century. According to the natural history of its occurrence around the world, it is postulated RWA originated from western or central Asia. The aphid dispersed gradually to Europe and northern Africa, but its big jump across the ocean to North America is still a mystery. There are two overwintering strategies in RWA. The anholocyclic biotype, often reproducing earlier and more offsprings than the holocyclic one, has greater impact on crops in South Africa and United States. According to the experiments on its thermal response, RWA could withstand temperatures below -20℃, while temperatures above 30℃ would be harmful to its survival. The preference to colder condition may determine its distribution on the world. RWA has made great damages to cereal crops worldwide. It caused loss in crop yield by directly feeding on plant nutrition and disturbing the plant metabolism. But its status as plant virus transporter is open to question. By now, the aphid is still a serious pest in many countries and its invasion to more countries and areas maybe continues. Therefore, the research on its biological characteristics as well as its dispersion apparently needs to be enhanced in the future.  相似文献
In January 1997, the German Research Association (DFG) established a special research programme for an integrated analysis of metallic resource flows. The programme is a joint interdisciplinary effort of the Technical University of Aachen and of the Research Centre Jiilich. Apart from many other activities, a series of conferences is organised within this programme. In October 1997, a first conference was held on “The Economics of Resource Flows: The Case of Aluminium”. In December 1997, a second conference took place on “Life Cycle Assessment of Aluminium: Methods and Applications”. In April 1998 the third workshop was held entitled “Methodological Aspects of a Resource-oriented Analysis of Material Flows”. The next conference is planned for December 1998 on “Environmental related Aspects of Aluminium Production”. Finally, a conference on “Methods for an Integrated Evaluation of Material Flows” is under consideration for 1999.  相似文献
The Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis is a native of freshwater and estuarine habitats along the east coast of Asia. Invasive populations have existed in northern Europe since the early 20th century, and more recently a breeding population has become established in the San Francisco Bay system along the west coast of North America. Ballast water is the most probable vector for both invasions, although there is also potential for escape from ethnic markets and from the ornamental aquarium industry. Invasive populations of mitten crabs have caused millions of dollars in economic and ecological damage. Economic impacts center largely on the burrowing activity of the crabs, which damages stream banks and levees, and the annual spawning migration, which interferes with fishing activities and irrigation projects. Chinese mitten crabs have recently appeared in the Chesapeake and Delaware Bays on the east coast of the USA, and there are confirmed reports of breeding females in both estuaries. The potential for large populations of mitten crabs in these estuaries has not been determined. This paper presents a review of the biology and ecology of native and invasive populations of the species and provides recommendations for research relevant to the prediction of future mitten crab invasions.  相似文献
The significance of Plasmodiophora brassicae Woronin and clubroot disease which it incites in members of the family Brassicaceae is reviewed as the focus for this special edition of the Journal of Plant Growth Regulation. This is a monographic treatment of recent research into the pathogen and disease; previous similar treatments are now well over half a century old. Vernacular nomenclature of the disease indicates that it had a well-established importance in agriculture and horticulture from at least the Middle Ages onward in Europe and probably earlier. Subsequently, the pathogen probably spread worldwide as a result of transfer on and in fodder taken by colonists as livestock feed. It is a moot point, however, whether there was much earlier spread by P. brassicae into China and subsequently Japan as Brassica rapa (Chinese cabbage and many variants) colonized those lands in archaeological time. Symptoms, worldwide distribution, and economic impact are briefly described here to provide a basis for understanding subsequent papers. Clubroot disease devastates both infected field and protected vegetable and agricultural Brassica crops. Particular importance is placed on recent reports of crop losses in tropical countries, albeit where the crops are grown in cooler altitudes, and in the Canadian prairie land canola crops. The latter is of enormous importance because this crop is the single most important and essential source of vegetable oils used in human foodstuffs and in industrial lubricants where mineral oils are inappropriate.  相似文献
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