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区域碳排放量的计算——以广东省为例   总被引:4,自引:0,他引:4  
采用IPCC 2006年版碳排放计算公式、经济-碳排放的动力学模型和水泥碳排放模型,提出了区域碳排量计算框架和研究方法,并以广东省为例,基于广东省社会经济统计数据、能源消费数据、水泥产量数据和森林碳汇数据,预测了广东省2008-2050年能源消费碳排放量、水泥消费量和碳排放量、森林碳汇值.结果表明:2008-2050年,广东省水泥产量及其生产过程中的碳排放量基本稳定,年碳排放量在10~15 Mt C;广东省能源消费碳排放和总的碳排放趋势均呈倒U型曲线,其峰值年份分别在2035和2036年;2008-2050年,广东省碳排放强度将持续下降,森林碳汇量呈波动式下降趋势.本文提出的区域碳排放计算框架在广东省具有可行性和合理性.  相似文献
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Resource Consumption of New Urban Construction in China   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
The volume of China's recent additions to its urban-built environment is unprecedented. China now accounts for half of all new building area in the world. Increases in building stocks of all types have occurred during an extended period of accelerated growth of the national economy. This expansion promises to continue through 2030. As a result, the rapid conversion of land from low-density agricultural and light manufacturing to new urban zones of high density and material-intensive commercial and residential buildings has consumed enormous quantities of domestic and imported resources and has irreversibly altered the Chinese landscape. This article examines the consumption of material resources dedicated to Chinese building construction through a survey and analysis of the material intensity of three major building types. This provides a basis for outlining the emerging life-cycle issues of recent additions to the built environment and of continued construction. With this as the starting point, the field of industrial ecology can work toward formulating strategies for a circular economy that include a resource-efficient urban China.  相似文献
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基于宏观环境经济学思想,建立了以污染物排放为表征的环境压力函数,并运用结构分解分析(SDA)模型,结合"修正后的Laspeyres方法",构建了用于分析和解释"经济增长-环境压力"关系动态变化的驱动因子及其影响程度的方法,并分析了1990-2005年甘肃省经济增长与环境压力之间时序关系的变化趋势以及各驱动因素对时序关系变化的影响程度.结果表明:研究期间,甘肃省由污染物排放所产生的环境压力主要是由经济增长过程_中产生的废气和工业固体废弃物所致,且环境压力在后期呈现出较快的增长趋势;人口因素对甘肃省环境压力变化的影响不大,经济增长因素对环境压力增大具有明显的正向效应,而技术因素则相对表现出抑制效应,但不足以抵消经济增长带来的正向效应,且经济增长和技术因素对环境压力的影响程度视不同类型污染物而有所差异.  相似文献
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Biological technologies are becoming an important part of the economy. Biotechnology already contributes at least 1% of US GDP, with revenues growing as much as 20% annually. The introduction of composable biological parts will enable an engineering discipline similar to the ones that resulted in modern aviation and information technology. As the sophistication of biological engineering increases, it will provide new goods and services at lower costs and higher efficiencies. Broad access to foundational engineering technologies is seen by some as a threat to physical and economic security. However, regulation of access will serve to suppress the innovation required to produce new vaccines and other countermeasures as well as limiting general economic growth.
Robert CarlsonEmail:
  相似文献
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The main characteristics of the dominant economic system, including the increasing use of markets and money are described. The global system has expanded trade, including international trade, and production tremendously. While this system has the potential to favour nature conservation, in practice the opposite has occurred. Difficulties raised for conservation of biodiversity by short-term economic crises such as deficits in a country's international payments, the adoption of policies for structural economic adjustment, international capital flows, international loans and foreign aid as well as debt-for-nature swaps are discussed. As explained, it is politically difficult in market economies to support nature conservation at the expense of economic growth and as more economies develop and become market economies this problem spreads. Given global interdependence of nations, an important issue is the distribution of net benefits from biodiversity conservation between developed and less developed countries. Possible distributions of benefits and related issues are discussed. In conclusion, the importance of political lobbying by nature conservation groups in developed market economies is emphasised as a means of ensuring correction of market failures. Unfortunately, no economic system is likely to prove satisfactory in itself in conserving biodiversity so political action by conservationists is always required.  相似文献
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The prosperity of a country, commonly measured in terms of its annual per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP), has different relationships with population levels of body weight and happiness, as well as environmental impacts such as carbon emissions. The aim of this study was to examine these relationships and to try to find a level of GDP, which provides for sustainable economic activity, optimal happiness and healthy levels of mean body mass index (BMI). Spline regression analyses were conducted using national indices from 175 countries: GDP, adult BMI, mean happiness scores, and carbon footprint per capita for the year 2007. Results showed that GDP was positively related to BMI and happiness up to ∼$US3000 and ∼$5000 per capita respectively, with no significant relationships beyond these levels. GDP was also positively related to CO2 emissions with a recognised sustainable carbon footprint of less than 5 tonnes per capita occurring at a GDP of <$US15,000. These findings show that a GDP between $US5 and $15,000 is associated with greater population happiness and environmental stability. A mean BMI of 21-23 kg/m2, which minimises the prevalence of underweight and overweight in the population then helps to define an ideal position in relation to growth, which few countries appear to have obtained. Within a group of wealthy countries (GDP > $US30,000), those with lower income inequalities and more regulated (less liberal) market systems had lower mean BMIs.  相似文献
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肖强  胡聃  肖洋  李勇志  谭宏  黄勇 《生态学报》2012,32(11):3577-3585
许多研究文献忽略了经济增长和生态环境质量的双向作用机制,从而导致了变量之间的内生性偏差。与以往研究相比,主要在以下几方面进行分析:1)采用脉冲响应函数来分别考察生态环境与经济增长这两类变量之间的动态冲击反应。2)运用预测方差分解技术来考察经济增长与生态环境变化在解释因素变动时的相对重要性。结论:经济增长与生态环境之间存在长期的均衡关系,非平稳序列的经济增长指标、生态环境因子经过一阶差分后变得平稳,均为一阶单整,存在协整统计关系。从长期来看,人均GDP与废气排放量、固废排放量呈现负相关,而与矿产开采总量、化肥使用强度呈现正相关。其高度正相关性实证了该地区主要靠资源开发拉动经济增长。脉冲响应分析表明,快速经济增长是影响生态环境质量的重要原因,生态环境质量变化对经济增长存在着反作用力。就响应效果而言,生态环境对经济增长的负向响应表明生态环境退化将导致人们对生态环境质量需求偏好的改变,从而对经济增长进程的变化产生外在压力,但生态环境对经济增长的反馈效应具有滞后性。  相似文献
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