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1.
跨太平洋生物入侵研究展望   总被引:24,自引:1,他引:23       下载免费PDF全文
跨太平洋生物入侵是当代最受关注、最具影响的生物学现象之一 ,这一过程导致并促进了新东亚 -北美间断分布格局 (与许多众所周知的古间断分布相对应 )的形成。为了更好地了解这一现象以及相关的生物类群 ,我们探讨了以下几个问题 :1)哪些类型的物种参与或可能会参与跨太平洋生物入侵 ,2 )这些入侵种在入侵之后会发生什么变化以及会导致什么样的后果 ,3)为了有效地监控生物入侵 ,我们应该从哪些方面着手研究入侵种及其原生和非原生生境。为了解决这些问题 ,我们应该对原产地和入侵地的这些物种进行比较研究 ,这些研究包括 :1)遗传学 ,2 )生活史 /形态学 (如 :个体大小、种子大小等 ) ,3)生态学 (如 :生活型 /生长型、传粉媒介和竞争对手等 ) ,4 )在原产地和入侵地的地理分布 (如 :分布区的大小、形状以及纬度等 ) ,5 )物理影响因子 (如土壤、水分和气候等 )。这些研究的目的在于 :1)确定外来种在其原生生境中影响其分布的限制因子 ,2 )了解入侵种能够在入侵地成功的原因 ,3)预测可能进一步发生的生物入侵 ,4 )为有效地监控和管理生物入侵提供资料。  相似文献
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Sauropod dinosaurs are poorly represented in the Lower Cretaceous of eastern Asia. Here, we describe a number of isolated sauropod teeth from the Kuwajima Formation (?Berriasian–?Hauterivian) of Shiramine, Japan. The mosaic of shared derived characters and symplesiomorphies displayed by the teeth indicate that they are referable to a basal member of the titanosauriform radiation. A taxonomic review of previously described sauropod specimens from eastern and south–eastern Asia reveals that a diversity of sauropods (including a titanosaurian, a basal titanosauriform and a ?euhelopodid, as well as several forms of indeterminate systematic position) was present in this region in the Early Cretaceous. This diversity conflicts with previous suggestions that eastern Asia was biogeographically isolated from the rest of Laurasia until the late Early Cretaceous and that the sauropod fauna was limited to the endemic East Asian clade Euhelopodidae. The presence of titanosauriform sauropods in the basal Cretaceous of Japan and Thailand indicate that the proposed faunal isolation of eastern Asia ended approximately 20 myr earlier than usually suggested.  相似文献
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We review the fossil history of seed plant genera that are now endemic to eastern Asia. Although the majority of eastern Asian endemic genera have no known fossil record at all, 54 genera, or about 9%, are reliably known from the fossil record. Most of these are woody (with two exceptions), and most are today either broadly East Asian, or more specifically confined to Sino-Japanese subcategory rather than being endemic to the Sino-Himalayan area. Of the "eastern Asian endemic" genera so far known from the fossil record, the majority formerly occurred in Europe and/or North America, indicating that eastern Asia served as a late Tertiary or Quaternary refugium for taxa. Hence, many of these genera may have originated in other parts of the Northern Hemisphere and expanded their ranges across continents and former sea barriers when tectonic and climatic conditions allowed, leading to their arrival in eastern Asia. Although clear evidence for paleoendemism is provided by the gymnosperms Amentotaxus, Cathaya, Cephalotaxus, Cunninghamia, Cryptomeria, Glyptostrobus, Ginkgo, Keteleeria, Metasequoia, Nothotsuga, Pseudolarix, Sciadopitys, and Taiwania, and the angiosperms Cercidiphyllum, Choerospondias, Corylopsis, Craigia, Cyclocarya, Davidia, Dipelta, Decaisnea, Diplopanax, Dipteronia, Emmenopterys, Eucommia, Euscaphis, Hemiptelea, Hovenia, Koelreuteria, Paulownia, Phellodendron, Platycarya, Pteroceltis, Rehderodendron, Sargentodoxa, Schizophragma, Sinomenium, Tapiscia, Tetracentron, Toricellia, Trapella, and Trochodendron, we cannot rule out the possibility that neoendemism plays an important role especially for herbaceous taxa in the present-day flora of Asia, particularly in the Sino-Himalayan region. In addition to reviewing paleobotanical occurrences from the literature, we document newly recognized fossil occurrences that expand the geographic and stratigraphic ranges previously known for Dipelta, Pteroceltis, and Toricellia.  相似文献
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There is a growing interest in understanding the influence of plant traits on their ability to spread in non-native regions. Many studies addressing this issue have been based on relatively small areas or restricted taxonomic groups. Here, we analyse a large data base involving 1567 plant species introduced between Eastern Asia and North America or from elsewhere to both regions. We related the extent of species distributions in each region to growth form and the distinction between upland and wetland habitats. We identified significant relationships between geographical distribution and plant traits in both native and exotic ranges as well as regional differences in the relationships. Range size was larger for herbaceous graminoids and forbs, especially annuals compared to perennials, than for woody species, and range size also was larger for plants of wetland compared to upland habitats. Distributions were more extensive in North America than in Eastern Asia, although native plants from both regions had broader distributions than non-natives, with exotics from elsewhere intermediate. Growth form and environment explained more of the variance in distribution of plants in North America than in Eastern Asia. The influence of growth form and habitat on distribution suggests that these traits might be related to tolerance of ecological conditions. In addition, the smaller extents of species in non-native compared to native areas suggest roles for dispersal limitation and adaptation to region-specific ecological conditions in determining distribution.  相似文献
6.
Floristics and plant biogeography in China   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
In 1998, a revolutionary system of angiosperm classification, the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group system was published.Meanwhile, another new system of classification of angiosperms, the eight-class system was proposed by C.Y. Wu and colleagues based on long term work on the flora of China. The Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae project was initiated in 1959 and completed by 2004. It is the largest Flora so far completed in the world, including 31 228 species of vascular plants,or one-eighth of the global plant diversity. The English-language and updated Flora of China (FOC) is an international joint effort initiated in 1988 and accelerated in 1998. Up to now, 15 of the 24 volumes of the FOC have been published. Based on the fioristic data, the composition, characteristics, floristic divisions and affinities of the flora of China have been studied by Wu and colleagues since 1965. In the past 10years, analyses of the available floristic data have been very productive.The East Asiatic Floristic Kingdom was proposed in 1998. All 346 families of angiosperms in China, according to the eightclass system of classification, were comprehensively discussed by using knowledge of current and historical distribution of seed plants in the world, together with some morphological and molecular data. A scheme of distribution patterns or areal-types of families and genera of seed plants in China was modified and elucidated, together with a proposed scheme of areal-types of the world. Molecular phylogenetic and biogeographical studies of angiosperms in China in the past 10 yearsalso witnessed a progressive development. Integration of morphological and molecular data and fossil evidence revealed some significant results. Eastern Asia, which used to be regarded as an important center of survival during the ice age, is likely an important center of diversification of angiosperms.  相似文献
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Biological control efforts in California directed against the linden aphid (Eucallipterus tiliae) have been predicated on the basis that the aphid is native to Europe. Although several European parasitoids have become established and attackE. tiliaein California, complete control has not been achieved; the aphid is a problem in Europe as well. New records ofE. tiliaefrom eastern Asia suggest that the aphid may be native there. This area has the greatest species diversity of both the host genus (Tilia) and the other linden-feeding drepanosiphid aphids. It is recommended that any further efforts for locating importable natural enemies be focused in this region.  相似文献
8.
The phylogeny of the cetrarioid lichens with bifusiform spermatia and dorsiventral thalli which contain usnic acid is reanalysed using three parts of the genome, ITS rDNA, β-tubulin and GAPDH sequences. Molecular data from five cetrarioid species are presented for the first time, and 13 new sequences are combined with sequences from the gene bank to delimit the genus Nephromopsis. A monophyletic clade of Nephromopsis, Tuckneraria, ‘Cetraria’ leucostigma and ‘C.’ melaloma is identified and circumscribed as one genus, Nephromopsis, which now includes 19 species. Four new combinations are presented. A key to the species is provided.  相似文献
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In order to investigate the genetic history of autochthonous South Siberian populations and to estimate the contribution of distinct patrilineages to their gene pools, we have analyzed 17 Y-chromosomal binary markers (YAP, RPS4Y711, SRY-8299, M89, M201, M52, M170, 12f2, M9, M20, 92R7, SRY-1532, DYS199, M173, M17, Tat, and LLY22 g) in a total sample of 1,358 males from 14 ethnic groups of Siberia (Altaians-Kizhi, Teleuts, Shors, Tuvinians, Todjins, Tofalars, Sojots, Khakassians, Buryats, Evenks), Central/Eastern Asia (Mongolians and Koreans) and Eastern Europe (Kalmyks and Russians). Based on both, the distribution pattern of Y-chromosomal haplogroups and results on AMOVA analysis we observed the statistically significant genetic differentiation between the populations of Baikal and Altai–Sayan regions. We suggest that these regional differences can be best explained by different contribution of Central/Eastern Asian and Eastern European paternal lineages into gene pools of modern South Siberians. The population of the Baikal region demonstrates the prevalence of Central/Eastern Asian lineages, whereas in the populations of Altai and Sayan regions the highest paternal contribution resulted from Eastern European descent is revealed. Yet, our data on Y-chromosome STRs variation demonstrate the clear differences between the South Siberian and Eastern European R1a1-lineages with the evolutionary ages compatible with divergence time between these two regional groups.  相似文献
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A cytological study was carried out for the first time on four populations of the only two species of Kelloggia (Rubiaceae), which occur disjunctly in eastern Asia (K. chinensis Franch.) and western North America (K. galioides Torr.). The consistent mitotic prophase chromosome condensation pattern and interphase nuclei type were determined for both species. The chromosome base number of the genus is suggested to be x=11. The karyotype of 2n=22=2x=16m+6sm was examined for both species. The karyotypical asymmetry of 1A and 2A was found in K. chinensis and K. galioides, respectively. According to the predominant evolutionary direction of karyotype asymmetry in angiosperms, K. galioides (2A) seems slightly more evolved than K. chinensis (1A). Our finding is consistent with the hypothesis of the Old World origin of Kelloggia based on molecular study.  相似文献
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