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1.
植物叶寿命及其相关叶性状的生态学研究进展   总被引:70,自引:10,他引:60       下载免费PDF全文
 科学家早已注意到,具有长叶寿命的植物通常生长于营养和(或)水分较为缺乏的环境,而具短叶寿命的植物一般生长在具有较高的营养可利用性地带。国外大量的实验研究结果表明,单位重量的叶氮含量(Nmass)与叶的最大光合速率存在密切正相关,而比叶面积(单位干重量的叶面积)与植物生产单位叶面积的物质成本呈负相关,二者又随叶寿命的增加而降低,这种相互关系几乎在所有植物种群和群落中都普遍存在,反映了植物对环境适应的趋同进化特征,是进一步理解生态系统行为特征的基础。松属(Pinus)及云杉(Picea)、冷杉(Abies)等常绿针叶树种的叶寿命一般随海拔的升高而增大,其相关叶性状也普遍存在明显的垂直分布格局:随着海拔升高,单位面积的叶氮含量(Narea)及最大光合速率增加,而比叶面积则减少。一般认为,长的叶寿命是对高寒及养分、水分贫乏等胁迫环境的适应,而短的叶寿命和(或)落叶性被认为是植物为了快速生长以及对干旱或寒冬等季节性胁迫环境的适应结果。根据成本-效益分析理论,在特定环境条件下叶寿命大小取决于形成并维护单位叶面积所需要的物质消耗与叶片碳收获的平衡,与常绿/落叶森林植被纬向/垂直地带性分布存在一种内在联系机理。因此,叶寿命及其相关叶性状成为将叶片水平上的生理生态实验数据扩展到整个群落冠层乃至生物地理群区的关键因子。加强叶寿命及其相关叶性状的格局分析研究,可为现有的区域生物地球化学循环模型与植被地理模型的连接(即区域植被动态模型)提供科学依据,这将有助于从机理上解释区域植被对全球变化的适应与响应机制。但是,以往植物生理生态研究大多注重于个体叶片水平的测定,仍不清楚如何实现这些叶性状在不同尺度间的转换,尤其是从叶片水平上升至整个群落冠层。国际上至今仍缺乏在生态系统水平上的大量野外观测数据来定量描述这些叶性状与群落特征、气候因子的数量关系;国内相关研究基本尚属空白。  相似文献
2.
苏南太湖水系农业非点源氮污染及其控制对策研究   总被引:49,自引:9,他引:40  
控制农业非点源对水体的污染是实现区域水质管理的必要组成部分。为此,设计了一系列水田、旱地田间试验和室内模拟实验。试验结果表明,渗漏水硝态氮污染与氮肥施用量呈正相关,同时通过统计处理获得农业非点源氮素污染负荷量,并提出了农业非点源氮素污染的几种有效的控制对策。  相似文献
3.
Summary Which factors cause fast-growing plant species to achieve a higher relative growth rate than slow-growing ones? To answer this question 24 wild species were grown from seed in a growth chamber under conditions of optimal nutrient supply and a growth analysis was carried out. Mean relative growth rate, corrected for possible ontogenetic drift, ranged from 113 to 356 mg g–1 day–1. Net assimilation rate, the increase in plant dry weight per unit leaf area and unit time, varied two-fold between species but no correlation with relative growth rate was found. The correlation between leaf area ratio, the ratio between total leaf area and total plant weight, and relative growth rate was very high. This positive correlation was mainly due to the specific leaf area, the ratio between leaf area and leaf weight, and to a lesser extent caused by the leaf weight ratio, the fraction of plant biomass allocated to the leaves. Differences in relative growth rate under conditions of optimum nutrient supply were correlated with the soil fertility in the natural habitat of these species. It is postulated that natural selection in a nutrient-rich environment has favoured species with a high specific leaf area and a high leaf weight ratio, and consequently a high leaf area ratio, whereas selection in nutrient-poor habitats has led to species with an inherently low specific leaf area and a higher fraction of root mass, and thus a low leaf area ratio.  相似文献
4.
We analyzed the European genetic contribution to 10 populations of African descent in the United States (Maywood, Illinois; Detroit; New York; Philadelphia; Pittsburgh; Baltimore; Charleston, South Carolina; New Orleans; and Houston) and in Jamaica, using nine autosomal DNA markers. These markers either are population-specific or show frequency differences >45% between the parental populations and are thus especially informative for admixture. European genetic ancestry ranged from 6.8% (Jamaica) to 22.5% (New Orleans). The unique utility of these markers is reflected in the low variance associated with these admixture estimates (SEM 1.3%-2.7%). We also estimated the male and female European contribution to African Americans, on the basis of informative mtDNA (haplogroups H and L) and Y Alu polymorphic markers. Results indicate a sex-biased gene flow from Europeans, the male contribution being substantially greater than the female contribution. mtDNA haplogroups analysis shows no evidence of a significant maternal Amerindian contribution to any of the 10 populations. We detected significant nonrandom association between two markers located 22 cM apart (FY-null and AT3), most likely due to admixture linkage disequilibrium created in the interbreeding of the two parental populations. The strength of this association and the substantial genetic distance between FY and AT3 emphasize the importance of admixed populations as a useful resource for mapping traits with different prevalence in two parental populations.  相似文献
5.
A leaf-height-seed (LHS) plant ecology strategy scheme   总被引:41,自引:2,他引:39  
Mark Westoby 《Plant and Soil》1998,199(2):213-227
A leaf-height-seed (LHS) plant ecology strategy scheme is proposed. The axes would be specific leaf area SLA (light-capturing area deployed per dry mass allocated), height of the plant's canopy at maturity, and seed mass. All axes would be log-scaled. The strategy of a species would be described by its position in the volume formed by the three axes.The advantages of the LHS scheme can be understood by comparing it to Grime's CSR scheme, which has Competitors, Stress-tolerators and Ruderals at the corners of a triangle. The CSR triangle is widely cited as expressing important strategic variation between species. The C–S axis reflects variation in responsiveness to opportunities for rapid growth; in the LHS scheme, SLA reflects the same type of variation. The R axis reflects coping with disturbance; in the LHS scheme, height and seed mass reflect separate aspects of coping with disturbance.A plant ecology strategy scheme that permitted any species worldwide to be readily positioned within the scheme could bring substantial benefits for improved meta-analysis of experimental results, for placing detailed ecophysiology in context, and for coping with questions posed by global change. In the CSR triangle the axes are defined by reference to concepts, there is no simple protocol for positioning species beyond the reference datasets within the scheme, and consequently benefits of worldwide comparison have not materialized. LHS does permit any vascular land plant species to be positioned within the scheme, without time-consuming measurement of metabolic rates or of field performance relative to other species. The merits of the LHS scheme reside (it is argued) in this potential for worldwide comparison, more than in superior explanatory power within any particular vegetation region.The LHS scheme avoids also two other difficulties with the CSR scheme: (a) It does not prejudge that there are no viable strategies under high stress and high disturbance (the missing quadrant in the CSR triangle compared to a two-axis rectangle); (b) It separates out two distinct aspects of the response to disturbance, height at maturity expressing the amount of growth attempted between disturbances, and seed mass (inverse of seed output per unit reproductive effort) expressing the capacity to colonize growth opportunities at a distance.The advantage of LHS axes defined through a single readily-measured variable needs to be weighed against the disadvantage that single plant traits may not capture as much strategy variation as CSR's multi-trait axes. It is argued that the benefits of potential worldwide comparison do actually outweigh any decrease in the proportion of meaningful variation between species that is captured. Further, the LHS scheme opens the path to quantifying what proportion of variation in any other ecologically-relevant trait is correlated with the LHS axes. This quantification could help us to move forward from unprofitable debates of the past 30 years, where CSR opponents have emphasized patterns that were not accommodated within the scheme, while CSR proponents have emphasized patterns that the scheme did account for.  相似文献
6.
Directed excision of a transgene from the plant genome   总被引:40,自引:0,他引:40  
Summary The effectiveness of loxP-Cre directed excision of a transgene was examined using phenotypic and molecular analyses. Two methods of combining the elements of this system, re-transformation and cross pollination, were found to produce different degrees of excision in the resulting plants. Two linked traits, -glucuronidase (GUS) and a gene encoding sulfonylurea-resistant acetolactate synthase (ALSr), were integrated into the genome of tobacco and Arabidopsis. The ALSr gene, bounded by loxP sites, was used as the selectable marker for transformation. The directed loss of the ALST gene through Cre-mediated excision was demonstrated by the loss of resistance to sulfonylurea herbicides and by Southern blot analysis. The -glucuronidase gene remained active. The excision efficiency varied in F1 progeny of different lox and Cre parents and was correlated with the Cre parent. Many of the lox × Cre F1 progeny were chimeric and some F2 progeny retained resistance to sulfonylureas. Re-transformation of lox/ALS/lox/GUS tobacco plants with cre led to much higher efficiency of excision. Lines of tobacco transformants carrying the GUS gene but producing only sulfonylurea-sensitive progeny were obtained using both approaches for introducing cre. Similarly, Arabidopsis lines with GUS activity but no sulfonylurea resistance were generated using cross pollinations.  相似文献
7.
养殖密度对史氏鲟稚鱼生长的影响   总被引:38,自引:5,他引:33  
养殖密度对史氏鲟生长影响的研究结果表明 ,在养殖密度分别为 0 .2 32、0 .6 6 5、1.34 7和 2 .46 9kg·m-2 的流水环境中 ,各密度组的史氏鲟稚鱼的生长表现为不等速性 ,但生长离散没有加剧 .试验持续 2 8d后 ,各组的生长表现出显著差异 ,生长效率、特定生长率和日增重都随密度的增大而降低 ,而饵料转化率和净增重随密度的增大而增大 .特定生长率 (SGR)与养殖密度 (D)之间存在着显著的负相关  相似文献
8.
DNA methylation is known to play an important role in the regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes. In this study, we assessed the extent and pattern of cytosine methylation in the rice genome, using the technique of methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP), which is a modification of the amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) method that makes use of the differential sensitivity of a pair of isoschizomers to cytosine methylation. The tissues assayed included seedlings and flag leaves of an elite rice hybrid, Shanyou 63, and the parental lines Zhenshan 97 and Minghui 63. In all, 1076 fragments, each representing a recognition site cleaved by either or both of the isoschizomers, were amplified using 16 pairs of selective primers. A total of 195 sites were found to be methylated at cytosines in one or both parents, and the two parents showed approximately the same overall degree of methylation (16.3%), as revealed by the incidence of differential digestion by the isoschizomers. Four classes of patterns were identified in a comparative assay of cytosine methylation in the parents and hybrid; increased methylation was detected in the hybrid compared to the parents at some of the recognition sites, while decreased methylation in the hybrid was detected at other sites. A small proportion of the sites was found to be differentially methylated in seedlings and flag leaves; DNA from young seedlings was methylated to a greater extent than that from flag leaves. Almost all of the methylation patterns detected by MSAP could be confirmed by Southern analysis using the isolated amplified fragments as probes. The results clearly demonstrate that the MSAP technique is highly efficient for large-scale detection of cytosine methylation in the rice genome. We believe that the technique can be adapted for use in other plant species. Received: 23 October 1998 / Accepted: 11 January 1999  相似文献
9.
猕猴桃软化过程中阶段性专一酶活性变化的研究   总被引:37,自引:0,他引:37  
猕猴桃(Actinidia deliciosa C.F.Liang etA.R.Ferguson. cv. Qinm ei)果实采后的软化过程表现为两个明显的阶段,第一阶段软化较快,此时对软化起主要作用的阶段性专一酶是淀粉酶;第二阶段软化速度变慢,此时起主要作用的阶段性专一酶是多聚半乳糖醛酸酶和纤维素酶。乙烯形成酶(EFE)的活性高峰出现在两个软化阶段之间,它所引起的乙烯释放对软化有促进作用,因此EFE也是与果实软化有关的阶段性专一酶。但是,果胶甲酯酶(PME)的活性变化与果实的软化无相关关系,过氧化物酶(POX)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)和SOD的活性高峰出现在果实完全软化以后,因此不是果实软化的阶段性专一酶  相似文献
10.
Factors that contribute to interspecific variation in photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency (PNUE, the ratio of CO2 assimilation rate to leaf organic nitrogen content) were investigated, comparing ten dicotyledonous species that differ inherently in specific leaf area (SLA, leaf area:leaf dry mass). Plants were grown hydroponically in controlled environment cabinets at two irradiances (200 and 1000 μmol m–2 s–1). CO2 and irradiance response curves of photosynthesis were measured followed by analysis of the chlorophyll, Rubisco, nitrate and total nitrogen contents of the leaves. At both irradiances, SLA ranged more than twofold across species. High-SLA species had higher in situ rates of photosynthesis per unit leaf mass, but similar rates on an area basis. The organic N content per unit leaf area was lower for the high-SLA species and consequently PNUE at ambient light conditions (PNUEamb) was higher in those plants. Differences were somewhat smaller, but still present, when PNUE was determined at saturating irradiances (PNUEmax). An assessment was made of the relative importance of the various factors that underlay interspecific variation in PNUE. For plants grown under low irradiance, PNUEamb of high-SLA species was higher primarily due to their lower N content per unit leaf area. Low-SLA species clearly had an overinvestment in photosynthetic N under these conditions. In addition, high SLA-species allocated a larger fraction of organic nitrogen to thylakoids and Rubisco, which further increased PNUEamb. High-SLA species grown under high irradiance showed higher PNUEamb mainly due to a higher Rubisco specific activity. Other factors that contributed were again their lower contents of Norg per unit leaf area and a higher fraction of photosynthetic N in electron transport and Rubisco. For PNUEmax, differences between species in organic leaf nitrogen content per se were no longer important and higher PNUEmax of the high SLA species was due to a higher fraction of N in␣photosynthetic compounds (for low-light plants) and a higher Rubisco specific activity (for high-light grown plants). Received: 11 October 1997 / Accepted: 9 April 1998  相似文献
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