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1.
春季赤潮频发期东海微型浮游动物摄食研究   总被引:47,自引:4,他引:43       下载免费PDF全文
2002年4~5月在东海长江口及其邻近水域的8、11、14、23和28号5个典型站位采样。用现场稀释法对春季东海水域浮游植物的生长率和微型浮游动物对浮游植物的摄食压力等方面进行了研究.结果表明,微型浮游动物的摄食行为在东海赤潮过程起到关键作用.各站位微型浮游动物主要以急游虫、红色中缢虫和夜光藻为主,在种类上砂壳纤毛虫是主要的类群.微型浮游动物的摄食速率范围在0.28~1.13d-1,对浮游植物现存量的摄食压力范围在35.14%~811.69%。对浮游植物潜在初级生产力的摄食压力范围在74.04%~203.25%,对浮游植物碳的摄食率范围在9.58~97.91μg·L-1·d-1,靠近岸边的站位,微型浮游动物的摄食速率、对浮游植物现存量的摄食压力和对浮游植物碳的摄食率相对较高。而远离岸边的站位对浮游植物潜在初级生产力的摄食压力却较高.与世界其它海区比较此水域微型浮游动物摄食压力处于较高水平.急游虫是控制东海主要赤潮原因生物具齿原甲藻生长的关键种类.  相似文献
2.
香港水域夏季微型浮游动物摄食研究   总被引:25,自引:4,他引:21       下载免费PDF全文
20 0 0年 8月在香港牛尾海 ( A站 )和龙鼓水道 ( B站 )的 2个典型站位采样 ,用半现场的稀释法研究了夏季香港水域浮游植物的生长率和微型浮游动物对浮游植物的摄食压力等。结果表明 :A、B站浮游植物主要以硅藻为主 ,但 A站甲藻比重比 B站要高。A站 <5 μm的微型浮游植物比 B站要少 ,从细胞大小上 B站的浮游植物更易被微型浮游动物所摄食。A站微型浮游动物类群主要以异养鞭毛藻为主 ,而 B站为砂壳纤毛虫 ,其细胞丰度分别为 770和 62 0 ind./L。 A、B站浮游植物碳 /叶绿素 a浓度比率分别为 2 7.1 5和88.66。 A站浮游植物的内禀生长率相似于 B站 ,分别为 1 .0 4和 0 .98d- 1。浮游植物在 A站的净生长率是0 .33d- 1,而在 B站则出现了负增长 ,其净生长率是 - 0 .5 8d- 1。微型浮游动物在 A、B站的摄食率分别为0 .71和 1 .5 6d- 1,摄食压力分别占到了浮游植物现存量的 1 43.7%和 2 0 9.7% ,初级生产力的 78.6%和1 2 6.6% ,对浮游植物碳的摄食率分别达到 35 1和 5 5 2 μg C/( L·d)。A站的浮游植物生长要高于 B站 ,B站的微型浮游动物摄食压力要明显高于 A站。与其它海区比较香港水域微型浮游动物摄食压力处于中等水平。黑暗长时间培养实验的结果表明此水域微型浮游动物摄食率稀释法实验应在适量添加营养盐并在  相似文献
3.
Both chronic hepatitis B and C virus (HBV and HCV) infections respond ineffectively to current antiviral therapies. Recent studies have suggested that treatment outcomes may depend on the development of type 1 T helper (Th1) and Th2 cell responses. Specifically, activation of Th1 immunity may play a major role in successfully treating hepatitis B and C. This model was revisited herein by evaluating immune responses in 36 HBV and 40 HCV patients with or without treatment, in an attempt to find a common immune mechanism for successful treatment. The immune responses in all examined cases were studied by peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proliferation and cytokine responses to viral antigens, cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses, enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay, and tetramer staining of virus-specific CD8+ T cells. The overall results revealed that all responders among both HBV- and HCV-infected cases displayed significantly higher PBMC proliferation to viral antigens with a predominant Th1 cytokine profile. Furthermore, the Th1-dominant responses were associated with significant enhancement of CTL activities and were correlated with ELISPOT data, while non-responders responded more weakly. During therapy, the numbers of tetramer-staining, virus-specific CD8+ T cells showed greater increases in responders than in non-responders (p = 0.001). The frequencies determined by the tetramer assay were approximately 200-fold higher than data estimated by limiting-dilution analysis. In conclusion, activation of Th1 immunity accompanied by enhancement of CTL activity during therapy is a common immune mechanism for successfully treating hepatitis B and C, and therefore may have important therapeutic implications.  相似文献
4.
有机垃圾发酵过程中的微生物研究   总被引:16,自引:1,他引:15  
采用最大概率法和平板计数法[1] 测定城市有机垃圾堆肥过程中主要微生物类群的变化。实验表明 :中、高温好氧细菌在前 7d呈上升趋势 ,在第 7d达其最大值为 1.32× 10 13 /g干垃圾 ;随后 ,其数量随着氧含量的降低而逐渐下降。厌氧菌在前 10d呈上升趋势 ,到第 10d达到最大值 7.5 1× 10 5/ g干垃圾 ;随后随着营养物质的减少而减少。停止通气后 ,好氧菌中的兼性厌氧菌逐渐增多 ,严格好氧菌逐渐减少 ;厌氧菌中的兼性厌氧菌逐渐减少 ,而严格厌氧菌逐渐增多。高温放线菌 ,中温好、厌氧纤维素菌和高温好氧纤维素菌在发酵的前 4d均呈上升趋势 ,随即逐渐下降。中温放线菌和真菌只在发酵之初存在 ,其数量随着温度的上升和氧含量的下降而迅速下降至零。高温厌氧纤维素菌的数量一直在慢慢上升  相似文献
5.
在大田栽培条件下,于江苏南京(长江中下游棉区)和河南安阳(黄淮棉区)设置了棉花氮素水平试验,依据Justes的临界氮浓度稀释曲线确定方法,建立了棉花花后临界氮浓度稀释曲线模型。结果表明,2试点的临界氮浓度与地上最大生物量间均符合幂指数关系,尽管不同气候区域间的模型存在一定差异,但临界氮稀释曲线斜率相同。棉花最高(Nmax)、最低(Nmin)氮浓度稀释模型也符合幂指数关系,且2试点最高、最低氮稀释曲线斜率亦分别相同。2试点氮稀释模型参数值的差异表明,对于相同的地上部生物量,安阳试点棉株的氮累积能力高于南京。基于临界氮浓度稀释模型,建立了棉株地上部氮素与干物质累积量之间的异速生长模型和氮营养指数模型(NNI),前者可作为施氮量调控的判别指标,后者作为实际与临界氮浓度的比值,能客观、定量地诊断棉株的氮素营养状况。基于临界氮浓度稀释条件下的异速生长参数、氮营养指数及动态临界氮累积量等指标得到施氮量调控的结果一致:(1)尽管安阳、南京2试点的地上生物量、产量差异较大,但临界氮稀释曲线条件下不同气候区域棉花达到最高产量的瞬时氮吸收速率的变化趋势、氮素快速累积期、最大氮吸收速率出现日等基本一致;(2)安阳、南京2试点的适宜施氮量应控制在360 kg.hm-2和240kg.hm-2水平上。由于临界氮浓度具有合理的生物学意义,因而所建模型有精确、简单和生物学意义明确等特点,可以直接用于评估作物的需氮量,亦可用于作物氮动态模拟的复杂模型中,为适时精确施肥提供了新的思路。  相似文献
6.
Conservation Implications of Invasion by Plant Hybridization   总被引:12,自引:0,他引:12  
The increasing number of invasive exotic plant species in many regions and the continuing alteration of natural ecosystems by humans promote hybridization between previously allopatric species; among both native as well as between native and introduced species. We review the ecological factors and mechanisms that promote such hybridization events and their negative consequences on biological diversity. Plant invasions through hybridization may occur in four different ways: hybridization between native species, hybridization between an exotic species and a native congener, hybridization between two exotics and by the introduction and subsequent spread of hybrids. The main harmful genetic effect of such hybrids on native species is the loss of both genetic diversity and of locally adapted populations, such as rare and threatened species. The spread of aggressive hybrid taxa can reduce the growth of, or replace, native species. The main factor promoting the formation of hybrids is species dispersal promoted by humans. However, the success and spread of hybrids is increased by disturbance and fragmentation of habitats, thus overcoming natural crossing barriers, and range expansions due to human activity. There are differences in flowering, pollination and seed dispersal patterns between parental species and hybrids. Hybrid resistance to pathogens and herbivores may also enhance the success of hybrids. To predict the mechanisms and consequences of invasions mediated by hybridization, extensive data on hybrid ecology and biology are needed, as well as carefully designed field experiments focused on the comparative ecology of parental populations and hybrids.  相似文献
7.
Effects of species diversity on disease risk   总被引:10,自引:2,他引:8  
The transmission of infectious diseases is an inherently ecological process involving interactions among at least two, and often many, species. Not surprisingly, then, the species diversity of ecological communities can potentially affect the prevalence of infectious diseases. Although a number of studies have now identified effects of diversity on disease prevalence, the mechanisms underlying these effects remain unclear in many cases. Starting with simple epidemiological models, we describe a suite of mechanisms through which diversity could increase or decrease disease risk, and illustrate the potential applicability of these mechanisms for both vector-borne and non-vector-borne diseases, and for both specialist and generalist pathogens. We review examples of how these mechanisms may operate in specific disease systems. Because the effects of diversity on multi-host disease systems have been the subject of much recent research and controversy, we describe several recent efforts to delineate under what general conditions host diversity should increase or decrease disease prevalence, and illustrate these with examples. Both models and literature reviews suggest that high host diversity is more likely to decrease than increase disease risk. Reduced disease risk with increasing host diversity is especially likely when pathogen transmission is frequency-dependent, and when pathogen transmission is greater within species than between species, particularly when the most competent hosts are also relatively abundant and widespread. We conclude by identifying focal areas for future research, including (1) describing patterns of change in disease risk with changing diversity; (2) identifying the mechanisms responsible for observed changes in risk; (3) clarifying additional mechanisms in a wider range of epidemiological models; and (4) experimentally manipulating disease systems to assess the impact of proposed mechanisms.  相似文献
8.
将木质纤维素类生物质如玉米秸秆等用稀酸水解预处理,在半纤维素水解为单糖的同时,水解液中还会产生一些可能对后续发酵有影响的副产物。本实验分别考查了在玉米秸秆稀酸水解液中检测出的乙酸、甲酸、香草醛、糠醛和羟甲基糠醛对重组木糖发酵菌株S. cerevisiae 6508-127生长和发酵的影响。结果表明,甲酸和乙酸对菌体生长的抑制强于乙醇生成,且甲酸的抑制程度远大于乙酸;2g/L香草醛可使菌体生长延滞期明显延长,而在较低浓度(≤1.2g/L)此现象不明显。糠醛在0.5-1.5g/L范围内对菌体生长有抑制作用,但使乙醇得率提高;羟甲基糠醛在0.2g/L浓度存在就使乙醇得率有明显降低,但使生物量得率提高;研究中还发现,糠醛、羟甲基糠醛和香草醛可被S. cerevisiae 6508-127代谢。  相似文献
9.
In 1985, 1986 and 1988, maize (Zea mays L.) was monocropped or intercropped with nodulating or nonnodulating soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.). In addition, nodulating soybean and nonnodulating soybean were each monocropped and grown as a mixture. In 1985 and 1986, treatments were grown at 0 and 60 kg N ha–1 and in 1988, the treatments were grown without N fertilizer, on N-depeted soil and on non-N-depleted soil. 15N enriched N was applied to soil in all the aforementioned treatments to test for N transfer from nodulating soybean to non-N2-fixing crops by the 15N dilution method.The 15N dilution method did not show the occurrence of N transfer in 1985 and 1986, but the N sparing effect was evident from the total N uptake of nonnodulating soybean, dwarf maize and tall maize, in 1986. In 1988, maize and nonnodulating soybean seed yields and seed N yields were higher on non-N-depleted soil than on N-depleted soil. On N-depleted soil, the 15N dilution method indicated N transfer from nodulating soybean to maize and to nonndulating soybean. At a population ratio of 67% nodulating soybean to 33% nonnodulating soybean, N transfer was also seen on non-N-depleted soil in 1988.  相似文献
10.
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