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We have studied mitotic and meiotic chromosomes in the males of two species of Blaps: B. gigas and B. gibba. Karyological characteristics such as the occurrence of a multivalent configuration at diakinesis and two types of metaphase-II spreads support the notion that multiple-chromosome sex systems involving five chromosomes in B. gigas and eight chromosomes in B. gibba have developed in these species. Results obtained by means of silver staining and C-banding techniques suggest that the complex sex systems occurring in B. gigas and B. gibba may have originated from exchanges of terminal ribosomal genes among the Y chromosome and some autosomes.  相似文献
Abstract. Development, growth and survival of the lesser mealworm, Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer), were determined at six constant temperatures. No egg hatch or larval development occurred at 17oC. At temperatures of 20, 25, 30, 35 and 38oC the median development times (days), respectively, were for eggs (13.4, 6.0, 4.4, 2.6 and 2.6), larvae (133.0, 46.0, 26.2, 22.4 and 23.9), pupae (17.0, 8.0, 5.5, 4.0 and 4.1), and from oviposition to adult emergence (164.4, 60.2, 37.9, 29.0 and 30.8). The Sharpe & DeMichele (1977) model was used to describe the temperature-dependent development. The mean egg survival (hatching) ranged from 61% to 86%, with lowest hatch at 20oC. Survival of the larvae and pupae ranged from 32% to 73% and from 85% to 95%, respectively, with lowest survival at 20oC. Pupae had significantly lower weights at 35oC and adults at 38oC than at the other temperatures. Female pupae (20 mg) and female adults (16 mg) were significantly heavier than male pupae (17 mg) and male adults (13 mg). Adults (0.5–9 months old) laid 4–7 eggs per female per day at 25oC.  相似文献
张大治  陈曦  贺达汉 《昆虫知识》2012,49(1):229-235
本研究在宁夏灵武白芨滩国家级自然保护区北部荒漠景观下的磁窑堡地区,选取典型荒漠草原区(DS)、人工柠条林种植区(CCL1,CCL2)及流沙人工封育区(SDE1,SDE2,SDE3)3类生境共6块样地,于2010年4月至8月以巴氏罐诱法采集该地区拟步甲科昆虫,研究该地区拟步甲科昆虫多样性及其对生境的指示作用。结果共获得标本3406头,计12属22种,其中东鳖甲属Anatolica和小鳖甲属Microdera为优势属,波氏东鳖甲Anatolica potanini Reitter、阿小鳖甲Microdera kraatz alashanica Skopin、小丽东鳖甲Anatolica amoenula Reitter和尖尾东鳖甲Anatolic amucronata Reitter为优势种。在流沙人工封育区的SDE1样地物种丰富度指数、均匀度指数和多样性指数最高,SDE3样地个体数量和优势度指数最高;人工柠条林种植区的CCL1样地个体数量最低。聚类分析结果表明流沙人工封育区与荒漠草原区、人工柠条种植区在物种组成及生境相似性方面差异较大。利用指示值法确定不同生境的特征指示种类,结果显示波氏东鳖甲、谢氏宽漠王Mantichorula semenowiReitter、尖尾东鳖甲可作为流沙封育区特征指示种;突角漠甲Trigonocnera pseudopimelia(Reitter)、中华砚甲Cyphogenia chinensis(Faldermann)和纳氏东鳖甲AnatolicanuretiSchusteretReymond可作为荒漠草原特征指示种;蒙古漠王Platyope mongolica Faldermann、多毛宽漠甲Sternoplax setosa setosa(Bates)、克小鳖甲Microdera kraatzi(Reitter)是生境恢复的监测种;小丽东鳖甲Anatolica amoenula Reitter等种类可作为生境退化的监测种。  相似文献
杨贵军  贺海明  王新谱 《昆虫知识》2012,49(6):1610-1617
从2009年3月到10月采用巴氏罐诱导法调查了宁夏盐池四墩子6个不同生境中的拟步甲的群落组成以及时间动态,结果表明,本次调查共采集拟步甲昆虫5431只,计10属20种,个体数最多的是弯齿琵甲Blapsfemoralis femoralis Fischer-Waldheim和克小鳖甲Microdera kraatzi kraatzi Reitter,分别占总数的47.30%和40.66%,不同季节的优势种类不同。从时间动态上看,拟步甲物种数和个体数成显著正相关(r=0.887,P=0.003),表现为5月和7—8月2个发生高峰期,且5月最高。从整个景观来看,优势种克小鳖甲的盛发期在5月和7月,弯齿琵甲的盛发期在5月和8月,不同景观样地略有差异。物种-时间对应分析表明,拟步甲成虫发生可以分为春季发生型、春夏发生型、夏季发生型、夏秋发生型和全年发生型5类。5月拟步甲群落多样性和丰富度最高,不同月的拟步甲群落相似性可以聚为3类,由于植被类型和干扰程度的差异,月间拟步甲群落相似性会有所差异。  相似文献
The application of antifeedants, often in combination with other methods within integrated pest management (IPM) strategies, has proven to be a good way to control insect pests. Little is known about compounds that have antifeedant activity against the lesser mealworm, Alphitobius diaperinus Panzer (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). The antifeedant properties of optically pure isomers of pulegone and isopulegol and some enantiomeric pairs of bicyclic terpenoid lactones with the p -menthane system, derived from these isomeric starting compounds, were studied in choice and no-choice tests with the lesser mealworm. The original monoterpenes and γ-spirolactones were weak feeding deterrents to larvae and adults of A. diaperinus . The δ-hydroxy-γ-spirolactones showed significant activity against adults, but substituting the hydroxy group with a ketone group considerably reduced the deterrent activity of the resulting δ-keto-γ-spirolactones. The bicyclic γ-hydroxy-δ-lactones with condensed rings and with the (1 S ,6 R ,8 R )-(+) and (1 R ,6 S ,8 S )-(–) configuration of the chiral centres, and δ-hydroxy-γ-lactone (1 S ,4 S ,6 S )-(+) were very strong antifeedants to both larvae and adults. The hydroxy groups and the configuration of the chiral centres of the molecules were very important features for determining the antifeedant activity of the lactones tested. Generally, the compounds studied were better antifeedants to adults than to larvae.  相似文献
利用典范对应分析(CCA)及曲线回归拟合,研究了宁夏贺兰山拟步甲科昆虫多样性及分布与地形的关系.结果表明:共调查到14属42种,其中,小圆鳖甲和阿小鳖甲为优势种,其个体数量分别占总捕获个体数的36.09%和19.14%.CCA分析显示,海拔、坡度和平面曲率对拟步甲昆虫的分布格局有显著影响.拟步甲昆虫丰富度和多样性分别与海拔呈显著的线性关系,个体数量与平面曲率呈显著的二次曲线关系.拟步甲昆虫的分布与坡度和坡向没有明显的回归关系,但拟步甲倾向于0°-15°坡度和西北坡向聚集.优势种小圆鳖甲与5个地形因子均不显著相关,因此在贺兰山的分布比较广泛.而优势种阿小鳖甲分布受海拔、坡度和平面曲率影响显著.  相似文献
The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Gonocephalum outreyi was determined by using next-generation sequencing approach. The full length of this mitogenome is 15,836 bp, which consists of 37 typical metazoan mitochondrial genes with an identical genome organization to ancestral insects. The majority of the protein-coding genes begin with the codon ATN, except for cox1 and cox2 with AAT and AAA, respectively. To elucidate the phylogenetic position of G. outreyi, we used various sequence coding schemes for protein-coding genes and the combined nucleotide sequences of all mitochondrial genes for tree building under the Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood inferences. The phylogenetic results consistently supported G. outreyi as a member of the family Tenebrionidae. The monophyly of both Tenebrionoidea and Tenebrionidae were strongly supported. The Scraptiidae and Melandryidae were recovered to be non-monophyletic in regards to the Osphya. Within Tenebrionidae, the subfamilies Diaperinae and Tenebrioninae were found to be non-monophyletic.  相似文献
The genus ErulipusFairmaire, 1903 (previously in the subfamily Tenebrioninae, tribe Helopini), after the study of the type species (Erulipus fruhstorferiFairmaire, 1903), is transferred to the genus AinuLewis, 1894 (subfamily Stenochiinae, the tribe Cnodalonini) as a subgenus. Consequently, two new combinations are established: Ainu (Erulipus) fruhstorferi (Fairmaire, 1903), comb. nov. and Ainu (s. str.) multicolor (Pic, 1927), comb. nov. The syntypes of Erulipus fruhstorferi and Erulipus multicolorPic, 1927 are studied and the new synonym is proposed: Erulipus fruhstorferi = Ainu grandisRen and Yuan, 2005, syn. nov. Two new species are described from China: Ainu linwenxini Nabozhenko & Ren, sp. nov. (Taiwan) and Ainu basifemoratum Nabozhenko & Ren, sp. nov. (Yunnan). Both the new species are closely related to A. sichuanumRen and Yuan, 2015.  相似文献
Based on data from sixteen museum collections we listed the endemic tenebrionids that inhabit the Patagonian steppe. Then, according to the geographical location of the species, we identified areas of micro‐endemism and hotspots within this biogeographic province. Results showed 115 endemic tenebrionid species from the Patagonian steppe, 25 areas of micro‐endemism and five hotspots. We used these outcomes to identify areas of importance for conservation. Based on the comparison with other biogeographic provinces, we suggest that the Patagonian steppe constitutes a center of high endemism for tenebrionids. We hypothesize that the isolation of the Patagonian steppe from other arid areas would cause the high occurrence of endemism. In addition, we suggest processes that could be responsible for the origin of the areas of micro‐endemism and hotspots identified in this work.  相似文献
Owing to the reinterpretation of its morphological synapomorphies, the taxonomic composition of the Ectateus generic group had been ambiguous. The present study scrutinized all existing taxonomic concepts of the group based on a cladistic analysis of the adult morphology of all of the Afrotropical platynotoid Platynotina genera. The phylogenetic relationships were reconstructed using parsimony and Bayesian inference. The results show that all previous taxonomic concepts of the Ectateus generic group concerned paraphyletic entities. The cladistic analysis revealed the following synapomorphies for the taxon: (1) presence of basal indentations of the pronotal disc, (2) ratio of prothorax width to its maximal height > 6.0, and (3) ratio of maximal height of the prothorax to total height < 0.3. Moreover, phylogenetic studies revealed the existence of the Upembarus generic group, a sister‐taxon group to the Ectateus generic group, within the Afrotropical platynotoid Platynotina. Autapomorphic and synapomorphic character mapping show that several taxonomic and nomenclatural changes are needed to consider the particular generic‐level entities traditionally assigned to Afrotropical platynotoid Platynotina as monophyletic lineages. The following taxonomic and nomenclatural adjustments are made in this paper: P teroselinus gen. nov. is erected to accommodate a single species that was previously assigned to Zidalus: Pteroselinus insularis comb. nov. Additionally, the following synonymies are proposed: Anchophthalmops (= Platykochius syn. nov. ), Angolositus (= Aberlencus syn. nov. , = Platymedvedevia syn. nov. ), Glyptopteryx (= Microselinus syn. nov. , = Quadrideres syn. nov. , = Synquadrideres syn. nov. ). In addition, Kochogaster is lowered in rank and is treated as one of the subgenera of Anchophthalmus. Moreover, Pseudoselinus is treated as a subgenus of Upembarus. An identification key to all Afrotropical platynotoid Platynotina genera and subgenera is presented. Zoogeographical analyses revealed the following dispersal barriers for the Ectateus generic group: (1) the Sahara (northern barrier); (2) the dry ecosystems of Botswana, Namibia, and South Africa (southern barrier); and (3) the Congolian rainforests (internal distributional gap). The ancestor of the taxon probably originated in East African ecoregions that predominantly contained wattletrees (acacias) and Commiphora Jacq. Moreover, past climate changes seem to have had a great impact on the observed generic distribution. © 2015 The Linnean Society of London  相似文献
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