首页 | 本学科首页   官方微博 | 高级检索  
文章检索
  按 检索   检索词:      
出版年份:   被引次数:   他引次数: 提示:输入*表示无穷大
  收费全文   6篇
  2019年   1篇
  2013年   1篇
  2007年   1篇
  2004年   1篇
  2000年   1篇
  1990年   1篇
排序方式: 共有6条查询结果,搜索用时 31 毫秒
1
1.
In some species of insects males transfer a gift to females during courtship or copulation. In the dance flies these nuptial gifts vary from nutritious prey items to inedible tokens such as a leaf, stone, or silk balloon. Nuptial gifts in dance flies are presumed to increase male mating success. We examined the strength and form of sexual selection on male Rhamphomyia sulcata, an empidid in which males provide females with a nutritious prey item as a nuptial gift. We found that whereas large males carried large gifts, neither large males nor gifts were targets of sexual selection. Indeed, correlational selection analysis and nonparametric examination of the fitness surfaces revealed that small males carrying small gifts were the most successful. Males may be more maneuverable or flight efficient with small gifts, or small males with large gifts may be unable to carry both a large gift and a female in the paired descent flight. These results suggest carrying constraints may be an important factor in determining selection on nuptial gift size. The largest target of sexual selection was old males. Old males were also paired with the largest and most fecund females, highlighting the role mate quality can further contribute to selection on males. Correlational selection analysis also revealed selection for an increase in covariance between male wing length and body size, and for an increase in slope between these traits. Males who deviate away from the optimal phenotypic relationship for two tightly related morphological traits, such as tibia and wing length, may have overall reduced performance. These findings highlight the role correlational sexual selection can play in optimizing nonsexual male morphology and scaling relationships. This study questions the role of the nuptial gift in dance flies as a resource for females.  相似文献
2.
In the dance fly species Empis borealis (L.), females (1–40) gather to swarm at landmarks (swarm markers, like trees and bushes), and males carrying an insect prey visit these swarms for mating. We noticed earlier that some swarm sites were used for several years and that they appeared to be frequented by a similar number of swarming females in each year, although the numbers of females varied greatly among swarm sites and certain sites attracted more swarming individuals than others. To explore swarm site fidelity in this mating system, in 1993 we monitored the same swarm sites that we studied in 1989, addressing the questions, Would the same swarm sites still attract the same number of females and males after 4 years? and Why do some swarm sites attract more displaying females than others? The number of females swarming at the different markers in 1993 was approximately the same as 4 years earlier. Some of these swarm sites are known to have been used for 18 years. The swarm sites with the largest number of flies had a high sun exposure during the day and were found at coniferous swarm marker trees and in a mixed forest habitat. A swarm site with few females attending and with a low amount of insolation during the day can be predicted to be abandoned as a swarming site soon. Empis borealis swarm sites thus persist over many years and are attended by a similar number of individuals each year. To our knowledge, such site fidelity has not been demonstrated for any swarming insect species earlier.  相似文献
3.
Abstract. 1. The time that pairs of the dance fly Empis borealis (L.) (Diptera: Empididae) spent in copula was positively correlated with the volume of the nuptial gift.
2. In some cases the copulation duration was short although prey volume was large. Females engaged in these matings had more worn wings, were therefore older, and most probably had sperm already stored in the spermatheca. It is suggested that these copulations were interrupted because either the spermatheca was full of sperm and the male was not able to transmit any sperm, or because prey content was depleted (males may have fed on the prey or the prey had been used in a previous mating). The latter explanation seemed more probable.
3. A male providing a large nuptial gift may transfer larger quantities of sperm. Quantitative sperm competition is more likely than last-male sperm predominance.  相似文献
4.
5.
An inventory of species from families Brachystomatidae, Empididae and Hybotidae from random and non-intensive samplings from Uzh River Basin in the Ukraine is presented. Thirteen empidid species [Empis (E.) filata, Hemerodromia oratoria, Hilara flavipes, H. hyposeta, H. intermedia, H. lasiochira, H. litorea, H. media, Chelifera precatoria, C. trapezina, Rhamphomyia (Aclonempis) longipes, R. (Holoclera) nigripennis, Wiedemannia (W.) tricuspidata], and three hybotid species (Crossopalpus curvinervis, Oedalea stigmatella, Platypalpus longiseta) are recorded for the first time for the fauna of the Ukraine. Ukrainian checklists of these families are summarized for Brachystomatidae with two species, for Empididae with 57 species and for Hybotidae with 91 species.  相似文献
6.
Most hypotheses to explain nonrandom mating patterns invoke mate choice, particularly in species that display elaborate ornaments. However, conflicting selection pressures on traits can result in functional constraints that can also cause nonrandom mating patterns. We tested for functional load‐lifting constraints during aerial copulation in Rhamphomyia longicauda, a species of dance fly that displays multiple extravagant female‐specific ornaments that are unusual among sexual traits because they are under stabilizing selection. R. longicauda males provide females with a nuptial gift before engaging in aerial mating, and the male bears the entire weight of the female and nuptial gift for the duration of copulation. In theory, a male's ability to carry females and nuptial gifts could constrain pairing opportunities for the heaviest females, as reported for nonornamented dance flies. In concert with directional preferences for large females with mature eggs, such a load‐lifting constraint could produce the stabilizing selection on female size previously observed in this species. We therefore tested whether wild‐caught male R. longicauda collected during copulation were experiencing load‐lift limitations by comparing the mass carried by males during copulation with the male's wing loading traits. We also performed permutation tests to determine whether the loads carried by males during copulation were lighter than expected. We found that heavier males are more often found mating with heavier females suggesting that whereas R. longicauda males do not experience a load‐lift constraint, there is a strong relationship of assortative mating by mass. We suggest that active male mate choice for intermediately adorned females is more likely to be causing the nonrandom mating patterns observed in R. longicauda.  相似文献
1
设为首页 | 免责声明 | 关于勤云 | 加入收藏

Copyright©北京勤云科技发展有限公司  京ICP备09084417号