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Tipula paludosa (Diptera: Nematocera) is the major insect pest in grassland in Northwest Europe and has been accidentally introduced to North America. Oviposition occurs during late August and first instars hatch from September until mid-October. Laboratory and field trials were conducted to assess the control potential of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) (Steinernema carpocapsae and S. feltiae) and Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) against T. paludosa and to investigate whether synergistic effects can be exploited by simultaneous application of nematodes and Bti. Results indicate that the early instars of the insect are most susceptible to nematodes and Bti. In the field the neonates prevail when temperatures tend to drop below 10 °C. S. carpocapsae, reaching >80% control, is more effective against young stages of T. paludosa than S. feltiae (<50%), but the potential of S. carpocapsae might be limited by temperatures below 12 °C. Mortality of T. paludosa caused by Bti was not affected by temperature even at 4 °C but the lethal time increased with decreasing temperatures. Synergistic effects of Bti and EPN against T. paludosa were observed in 3 out of 10 combinations in laboratory assays but not in a field trial. The potential of S. carpocapsae was demonstrated in field trials against early instars in October reaching an efficacy of >80% with 0.5 million nematodes m−2 at soil temperatures ranging between 3 and 18 °C. Results with Bti were strongly influenced by the larval stage and concentration. Against early instars in autumn between 74 and 83% control was achieved with 13 kg ha−1 Bti of 5,700 International Toxic Units (ITUs) and 20 kg ha−1 of 3,000 ITUs. Applications in spring against third and fourth instars achieved between 0 and 32% reduction. The results indicate that application of Bti and nematodes will only be successful and economically feasible during the early instars and that the success of S. carpocapsae is dependent on temperatures >12 °C. Synergistic effects between S. carpocapsae and Bti require more detailed investigations in the field to determine maximal effect.  相似文献
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The European crane fly (ECF), Tipula paludosa Meigen feeds on leaves, crowns, and roots of cool-season turfgrasses causing damage to residential lawns and golf courses. A laboratory study was conducted to determine the susceptibility of ECF larvae to four commercial entomopathogenic nematode (EPN) species (Heterorhabditis marelatus, H. megidis, Steinernema carpocapsae and S. feltiae). The virulence of four S. feltiae isolates recovered from golf courses in Quebec and Ontario were also compared to a commercial strain. LC50 values of EPN against late instar ECF larvae were 152, 562, 763, and 3584 for S. feltiae, H. megidis, H. marelatus and S. carpocapsae, respectively. When non-feeding (without grass seedling), ECF larvae mortalities decreased for all nematode species and concentrations tested. At 25°C, LC50 values for the two most virulent indigenous S. feltiae were 129 and 187 nematodes/larva, not different from the commercial strain. At 5°C, the commercial S. feltiae was more effective than both BIC14A and RE6A isolates against ECF larvae. However, at 15°C, BIC14A was the most virulent at the low concentration of 200 IJs/larva.  相似文献
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Fabian L  Forer A 《Protoplasma》2005,225(3-4):169-184
Summary. Actin inhibitors block or slow anaphase chromosome movements in crane-fly spermatocytes, but stopping of movement is only temporary; we assumed that cells adapt to loss of actin by switching to mechanism(s) involving only microtubules. To test this, we produced actin-filament-free spindles: we added latrunculin B during prometaphase, 9–80 min before anaphase, after which chromosomes generally moved normally during anaphase. We confirmed the absence of actin filaments by staining with fluorescent phalloidin and by showing that cytochalasin D had no effect on chromosome movement. Thus, actin filaments are involved in normal anaphase movements, but in vivo, spindles nonetheless can function normally without them. We tested whether chromosome movements in actin-filament-free spindles arise via microtubules by challenging such spindles with anti-myosin drugs. Y-27632 and BDM (2,3-butanedione monoxime), inhibitors that affect myosin at different regulatory levels, blocked chromosome movement in normal spindles and in actin-filament-free spindles. We tested whether BDM has side effects on microtubule motors. BDM had no effect on ciliary and sperm motility or on ATPase activity of isolated ciliary axonemes, and thus it does not directly block dynein. Nor does it block kinesin, assayed by a microtubule sliding assay. BDM could conceivably indirectly affect these microtubule motors, though it is unlikely that it would have the same side effect on the motors as Y-27632. Since BDM and Y-27632 both affect chromosome movement in the same way, it would seem that both affect spindle myosin; this suggests that spindle myosin interacts with kinetochore microtubules, either directly or via an intermediate component. Supplementary material to this paper is available in electronic form at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00709-005-0094-6 Correspondence and reprints: Biology Department, York University, 4700 Keele Street, Toronto, ON M3J 1P3, Canada.  相似文献
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Summary Variable numbers of bivalents and sex chromosomes do not attach to the spindle when prophase or early prometaphase cranefly spermatocytes (2n=8) are treated with cytochalasin D or latrunculin. The unattached bivalents lie in the cytoplasm or at the spindle pole, and they do not delay onset of autosomal anaphase; sometimes they disjoin at the same time as the attached bivalents, so they respond to the global signals that initiate anaphase. Unattached sex chromosomes do not delay autosomal anaphase, either. Of various interpretations of these data, we think the best explanation is that the checkpoint system responds to physical rather than chemical cues; we think that the spindle is a tensegral structure, that chromosomes need to interact with the spindle in order to be recognised by the anaphase-onset checkpoint control, and that the physical interaction of chromosomes with spindle acts as a signalling network. Cytochalasin D and latrunculin treatments delay onset of sex chromosome anaphase (which normally occurs about 15 min after autosomal anaphase) and cause altered patterns of sex-chromosome segregation.  相似文献
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Summary In order to resolve apparent differences in reported experiments, we directly compared the effects of ultraviolet (UV) microbeam irradiations on the behaviour of spindle fibres in newt epithelial cells and crane-fly spermatocytes, using the same apparatus for both cell types. This work represents the first time that irradiated crane-fly spermatocytes have been followed using a high-NA objective and video-enhancement of images. In both cell types, irradiation of a kinetochore fibre in metaphase produced an area of reduced birefringence (ARB), known to be devoid of spindle microtubules (MTs). Subsequently the kinetochore-ward edge of the ARB moved poleward with average velocities of 0.5 m/min (n=20) in spermatocytes and 1.1 m/min (n=6) in epithelial cells. The poleward edge of the ARB rapidly disappeared when viewed using a ×100, high-NA objective but generally remained visible when viewed with a ×32, low-NA objective; this difference suggests that MTs poleward from the ARB disperse vertically out of the narrow depth of field of the ×100 objective but that many remain encompassed by that of the ×32 objective. The primary difference in response between the two cell types was in the behaviour of the spindle poles after an ARB formed. In spermatocytes the spindle maintained its original length whereas in epithelial cells the pole on the irradiated side very soon moved towards the chromosomes, after which the other pole did the same and a much shortened functional metaphase spindle was formed.  相似文献
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Three species of crane flies-Dactylolabis montana, Limonia simulans,and Antocha saxicola-gather near streams to mate and oviposit. All species are polygamous and sex ratios at these sites are male-biased. After a short mating bout, males guard females by standing over them during oviposition. Sperm competition appears to be intense and to follow last-male advantage, based on the packing of sperm within the two elongate spermathecae. Males of A. saxicolasuccessfully defend against rivals over 85% of the time. In contrast, defending males of D. montanaand L. simulanslose the female over 65% of the time during interactions with rivals. Despite the high frequency of loss, defending males gain additional oviposition time by engaging rivals in combat while the female continues to oviposit. Thus, a guarding male does not have to retain the female for guarding to be adaptive. Legs and claws of all species are sexually dimorphic and play an important role in guarding and defending.  相似文献
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Summary. We used an ultraviolet microbeam to cut individual kinetochore spindle fibres in metaphase crane-fly spermatocytes. We then followed the growth of the “kinetochore stubs”, the remnants of kinetochore fibres that remain attached to kinetochores. Kinetochore stubs elongate with constant velocity by adding tubulin subunits at the kinetochore, and thus elongation is related to tubulin flux in the kinetochore microtubules. Stub elongation was blocked by cytochalasin D and latrunculin A, actin inhibitors, and by butanedione monoxime, a myosin inhibitor. We conclude that actin and myosin are involved in generating elongation and thus in producing tubulin flux in kinetochore microtubules. We suggest that actin and myosin act in concert with a spindle matrix to propel kinetochore fibres poleward, thereby causing stub elongation and generating anaphase chromosome movement in nonirradiated cells. Correspondence: A. Forer, Biology Department, York University, 4700 Keele Street, Toronto, ON M3J 1P3, Canada.  相似文献
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