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排序方式: 共有589条查询结果,搜索用时 171 毫秒
1.
Group sequential methods in the design and analysis of clinical trials   总被引:24,自引:0,他引:24  
POCOCK  STUART J. 《Biometrika》1977,64(2):191-199
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Dendritic cell (DC) immunotherapy has shown significant promise in animal studies as a potential treatment for cancer. Its application in the clinic depends on the results of human trials. Here, we review the published clinical trials of cancer immunotherapy using exogenously antigen-exposed DCs. We begin with a short review of general properties and considerations in the design of such vaccines. We then review trials by disease type. Despite great efforts on the part of individual investigative groups, most trials to date have not yielded data from which firm conclusions can be drawn. The reasons for this include nonstandard DC preparation and vaccination protocols, use of different antigen preparations, variable means of immune assessment, and nonrigorous criteria for defining clinical response. While extensive animal studies have been conducted using DCs, optimal parameters in humans remain to be established. Unanswered questions include optimal cell dose, use of mature versus immature DCs for vaccination, optimal antigen preparation, optimal route, and optimal means of assessing immune response. It is critical that these questions be answered, as DC therapy is labor- and resource-intensive. Cooperation is needed on the part of the many investigators in the field to address these issues. If such cooperation is not forthcoming, the critical studies that will be required to make DC therapy a clinically and commercially viable enterprise will not take place, and this therapy, so promising in preclinical studies, will not be able to compete with the many other new approaches to cancer therapy presently in development. Trials published in print through June 2003 are included. We exclude single case reports, except where relevant, and trials with so many variables as to prevent interpretation about DC therapy effects.  相似文献
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The potential of artemether for the control of schistosomiasis   总被引:13,自引:0,他引:13  
Schistosomiasis continues to rank – following malaria – at the second position of the world's parasitic diseases in terms of the extent of endemic areas and the number of infected people. There is yet no vaccine available and the current mainstay of control is chemotherapy with praziquantel used as the drug of choice. In view of concern about the development of tolerance and/or resistance to praziquantel, there is a need for research and development of novel drugs for the prevention and cure of schistosomiasis. Interestingly, derivatives of artemisinin, which are already effectively used in the treatment of malaria, also exhibit antischistosomal properties. Significant advances have been made with artemether, the methyl ether derivative of artemisinin. We review the discovery of the antischistosomal activity of artemether by Chinese scientists two decades ago; the detailed laboratory studies of the susceptibility of, and effect on, the different developmental stages of Schistosoma japonicum, Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium to artemether; the possible mechanism of action and the potential long-term toxicity. Finally, we look at the effect of combined treatment with artemether and praziquantel; and clinical findings thus far obtained from randomised controlled trials with oral artemether for the prevention of patent infections and morbidity. The review intends to create a forum for strategic discussion of how these laboratory and clinical findings could be translated into public health actions. We conclude that artemether – as part of integrated current control measures and adapted to specific socio-ecological and epidemiological settings – has considerable potential to significantly reduce the current burden of schistosomiasis in many parts of the world.  相似文献
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Natural killer lymphocytes: biology,development, and function   总被引:12,自引:0,他引:12  
Natural killer (NK) lymphocytes represent the first line of defense against virally infected cells and tumor cells. The role of NK cells in immune responses has been markedly explored, mainly due to the identification of NK cell receptors and their ligands, but also through the analysis of mechanisms underlying the effects of various cytokines on NK cell development and function. A population of lymphocytes that shares function and receptors with NK cells is represented by natural killer T (NKT) cells. NKT lymphocytes are regulators of both innate and adaptive immune responses, but have also been reported to function as effector antitumor cells. The marked progress in our understanding of the biology, development, and function of NK/NKT cells has provided the basis for their potential application in tumor clinical trials.This work was presented at the first Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy Summer School, 8–13 September 2003, Ionian Village, Bartholomeio, Peloponnese, Greece.  相似文献
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重离子辐射治疗进展   总被引:10,自引:0,他引:10  
李强 《激光生物学报》2003,12(5):386-397
本文简略地回顾了重离子治疗的历史,更多的兴趣集中在重离子治癌的进展上。为了利用重离子的优越特性(例如:剂量局域性和高的生物效率),已经开发了几种技术。在临床试验中获得了令人鼓舞的治疗效果,广泛地提出了物理和辐射生物方面的临床结果和治疗技术,概要地分析了重离子治癌的前景。  相似文献
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Live attenuated Salmonella spp. are promising candidates as oral vaccine delivery systems for heterologous antigens. Clinical trials have demonstrated that this approach is feasible for human vaccinations but further optimisation is necessary to obtain a better efficacy. Here, we discuss how existing clinical and pre-clinical data can be used to guide such optimisation efforts.  相似文献
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EHF灭活疫苗扩大人体试用的效果观察   总被引:7,自引:0,他引:7  
流行性出血热(EHF)沙鼠肾细胞灭活疫苗,经75名自愿者扩大试用,未发现不良反应。中和抗体阳转率达70.6~96.7%,4℃保存14个月的疫苗,仍有较高的中和抗体阳转率,再一次证明此疫苗是安全有效的,且有良好的稳定性。接种程序为0、7、28天内三次免疫与0、28、60天内三次免疫无明显差别。皮下接种佐剂苗产生的中和抗体滴度高于肌肉接种的佐剂苗和疫苗。  相似文献
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