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1.
Phytochromes and shade-avoidance responses in plants   总被引:25,自引:0,他引:25  
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The ability to detect and respond to the impending threat of shade can confer significant selective advantage to plants growing in natural communities. This Botanical Briefing highlights (a) the regulation of shade-avoidance responses by endogenous and exogenous factors and (b) current understanding of the molecular components involved in red to far-red ratio signal transduction. SCOPE: The Briefing covers: (a) the shade-avoidance syndrome in higher plants; (b) the adaptive significance of shade avoidance in natural light environments; (c) phytochrome regulation of shade-avoidance responses; (d) the role of blue light signals in shade avoidance; (e) gating of rapid shade-avoidance responses by the circadian clock; (f) potential signalling components and future perspectives.  相似文献
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Temperature perception and signal transduction in plants   总被引:6,自引:0,他引:6  
Plants can show remarkable responses to small changes in temperature, yet one of the great unknowns in plant science is how that temperature signal is perceived. The identity of the early components of the temperature signal transduction pathway also remains a mystery. To understand the consequences of anthropogenic environmental change we will have to learn much more about the basic biology of how plants sense temperature. Recent advances show that many known plant-temperature responses share common signalling components, and suggest ways in which these might be linked to form a plant temperature signalling network.  相似文献
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Effects of temperature and temperature changes on circadian clocks in cyanobacteria, unicellular algae, and plants, as well as fungi, arthropods, and vertebrates are reviewed. Periodic temperature with periods around 24 h even in the low range of 1-2 degrees C (strong Zeitgeber effect) can entrain all ectothermic (poikilothermic) organisms. This is also reflected by the phase shifts-recorded by phase response curves (PRCs)-that are elicited by step- or pulsewise changes in the temperature. The amount of phase shift (weak or strong type of PRC) depends on the amplitude of the temperature change and on its duration when applied as a pulse. Form and position of the PRC to temperature pulses are similar to those of the PRC to light pulses. A combined high/low temperature and light/dark cycle leads to a stabile phase and maximal amplitude of the circadian rhythm-when applied in phase (i.e., warm/light and cold/dark). When the two Zeitgeber cycles are phase-shifted against each other the phase of the circadian rhythm is determined by either Zeitgeber or by both, depending on the relative strength (amplitude) of both Zeitgeber signals and the sensitivity of the species/individual toward them. A phase jump of the circadian rhythm has been observed in several organisms at a certain phase relationship of the two Zeitgeber cycles. Ectothermic organisms show inter- and intraspecies plus seasonal variations in the temperature limits for the expression of the clock, either of the basic molecular mechanism, and/or the dependent variables. A step-down from higher temperatures or a step-up from lower temperatures to moderate temperatures often results in initiation of oscillations from phase positions that are about 180 degrees different. This may be explained by holding the clock at different phase positions (maximum or minimum of a clock component) or by significantly different levels of clock components at the higher or lower temperatures. Different permissive temperatures result in different circadian amplitudes, that usually show a species-specific optimum. In endothermic (homeothermic) organisms periodic temperature changes of about 24 h often cause entrainment, although with considerable individual differences, only if they are of rather high amplitudes (weak Zeitgeber effects). The same applies to the phase-shifting effects of temperature pulses. Isolated bird pineals and rat suprachiasmatic nuclei tissues on the other hand, respond to medium high temperature pulses and reveal PRCs similar to that of light signals. Therefore, one may speculate that the self-selected circadian rhythm of body temperature in reptiles or the endogenously controlled body temperature in homeotherms (some of which show temperature differences of more than 2 degrees C) may, in itself, serve as an internal entraining system. The so-called heterothermic mammals (undergoing low body temperature states in a daily or seasonal pattern) may be more sensitive to temperature changes. Effects of temperature elevation on the molecular clock mechanisms have been shown in Neurospora (induction of the frequency (FRQ) protein) and in Drosophila (degradation of the period (PER) and timeless (TIM) protein) and can explain observed phase shifts of rhythms in conidiation and locomotor activity, respectively. Temperature changes probably act directly on all processes of the clock mechanism some being more sensitive than the others. Temperature changes affect membrane properties, ion homeostasis, calcium influx, and other signal cascades (cAMP, cGMP, and the protein kinases A and C) (indirect effects) and may thus influence, in particular, protein phosphorylation processes of the clock mechanism. The temperature effects resemble to some degree those induced by light or by light-transducing neurons and their transmitters. In ectothermic vertebrates temperature changes significantly affect the melatonin rhythm, which in turn exerts entraining (phase shifting) functions.  相似文献
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Laposky AD  Bass J  Kohsaka A  Turek FW 《FEBS letters》2008,582(1):142-151
In this review, we present evidence from human and animal studies to evaluate the hypothesis that sleep and circadian rhythms have direct impacts on energy metabolism, and represent important mechanisms underlying the major health epidemics of obesity and diabetes. The first part of this review will focus on studies that support the idea that sleep loss and obesity are "interacting epidemics." The second part will discuss recent evidence that the circadian clock system plays a fundamental role in energy metabolism at both the behavioral and molecular levels. These lines of research must be seen as in their infancy, but nevertheless, have provided a conceptual and experimental framework that potentially has great importance for understanding metabolic health and disease.  相似文献
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果蝇昼夜节律的分子机制研究进展   总被引:4,自引:1,他引:3       下载免费PDF全文
果蝇由于遗传易操作性而成为一个研究昼夜节律分子机制的理想模式生物 . 到目前为止,通过遗传学和生物化学方法已经鉴定到 10 多个时钟基因 (clock genes) 和许多时钟相关基因,包括时钟输入基因和钟控基因 . 这些时钟基因以及它们的相应产物组成两个互相依赖的转录 / 翻译反馈环路,从而调节行为和生理的昼夜节律 . 果蝇这种核心钟的工作原理同样见于哺乳动物 .  相似文献
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The cephalic nervous system of the firebrat contains antigens recognized by antisera to the clock protein period (PER), the prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) and the eclosion hormone (EH). The content of the 115 kDa PER-like antigen visualized on the western blots fluctuates in diurnal rhythm with a maximum in the night. The oscillations entrained in a 12:12 h light/dark (LD) cycle persist in the darkness and disappear in continuous light. They are detected by immunostaining in 14 pairs of the protocerebral neurons and are extreme in four suboesophageal neurons and two cells in each corpus cardiacum that contain PER only during the night phase. No circadian fluctuations occur in three lightly stained perikarya of the optic lobe. Five cell bodies located in each brain hemisphere between the deuto-and the tritocerebrum retain weak immunoreactivity under constant illumination. In all cells, the staining is confined to the cytoplasm and never occurs in the cell nuclei. The cells containing PER-like material do not react with the anti-PTTH and anti-EH antisera, which recognize antigens of about 50 and 20 kDa, respectively. The anti-PTTH antiserum stains in each brain hemisphere seven neurons in the protocerebrum, eight in the optic lobe, and 3–5 in the posterior region of the deutocerebrum. The antiserum to EH reacts in each hemisphere with just two cells located medially to the mushroom bodies. No cycling of the PTTH-like and EH-like antigens was detected.  相似文献
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In this paper, we present the mathematical details underlying both an approach to the flexibility of regulatory networks and an analytical characterization of evolutionary goals of circadian clock networks. A fundamental problem in cellular regulation is to understand the relation between the form of regulatory networks and their function. Circadian clocks present a particularly interesting instance of this. Recent work has shown that they have complex structures involving multiple interconnected feedback loops with both positive and negative feedback. We address the question of why they have such a complex structure and argue that it is to provide the flexibility necessary to simultaneously attain multiple key properties of circadian clocks such as robust entrainment and temperature compensation. To do this we address two fundamental problems: (A) to understand the relationships between the key evolutionary aims of the clock and (B) to ascertain how flexible the clock's structure is. To address the first problem we use infinitesimal response curves (IRCs), a tool that we believe will be of general utility in the analysis of regulatory networks. To understand the second problem we introduce the flexibility dimension d, show how to calculate it and then use it to analyse a range of models. We believe our results will generalize to a broad range of regulatory networks.  相似文献
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