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1.
Soil respiration rates vary significantly among major plant biomes, suggesting that vegetation type influences the rate of soil respiration. However, correlations among climatic factors, vegetation distributions, and soil respiration rates make cause-effect arguments difficult. Vegetation may affect soil respiration by influencing soil microclimate and structure, the quantity of detritus supplied to the soil, the quality of that detritus, and the overall rate of root respiration. At the global scale, soil respiration rates correlate positively with litterfall rates in forests, as previously reported, and with aboveground net primary productivity in grasslands, providing evidence of the importance of detritus supply. To determine the direction and magnitude of the effect of vegetation type on soil respiration, we collated data from published studies where soil respiration rates were measured simultaneously in two or more plant communities. We found no predictable differences in soil respiration between cropped and vegetation-free soils, between forested and cropped soils, or between grassland and cropped soils, possibly due to the diversity of crops and cropping systems included. Factors such as temperature, moisture availability, and substrate properties that simultaneously influence the production and consumption of organic matter are more important in controlling the overall rate of soil respiration than is vegetation type in most cases. However, coniferous forests had 10% lower rates of soil respiration than did adjacent broad-leaved forests growing on the same soil type, and grasslands had, on average, 20% higher soil respiration rates than did comparable forest stands, demonstrating that vegetation type does in some cases significantly affect rates of soil respiration.  相似文献
2.
森林土壤呼吸及其对全球变化的响应   总被引:63,自引:5,他引:58       下载免费PDF全文
森林土壤呼吸是全球碳循环的重要流通途径之一 ,其动态变化将直接影响全球 C平衡。森林土壤呼吸由自养呼吸和异养呼吸组成 ,不同森林类型、测定季节和测定方法等直接影响其所占比例。土壤温度和湿度是影响森林土壤呼吸的最主要因素 ,共同解释了森林土壤呼吸变化的大部分。因树种组成、生产力和枯落物数量等不同而使不同森林类型土壤呼吸速率表现出明显差异。采伐对森林土壤呼吸的影响结果有增加、降低或无影响 ,因采伐方式、森林类型、采伐迹地上植被恢复进程和气候条件等而异。火烧一般导致土壤呼吸速率降低。因肥料种类、施用剂量和立地条件不同 ,施肥对森林土壤呼吸的影响出现增加、降低或无影响等不同结果。大气 CO2 浓度升高和升温均可促进森林土壤呼吸。 N沉降有可能刺激了土壤呼吸 ,而酸沉降则可能降低了土壤呼吸。臭氧浓度和 UV-B辐射强度亦会在一定程度上影响森林土壤呼吸。但目前全球变化对森林土壤呼吸的综合影响尚不清楚 ,深入探讨森林土壤呼吸的调控因素及其对全球变化和营林措施的响应等仍是今后努力的主要方向。  相似文献
3.
The effect of soil water content on efflux of CO2 from soils has been described by linear, logarithmic, quadratic, and parabolic functions of soil water expressed as matric potential, gravimetric and volumetric water content, water holding capacity, water-filled pore space, precipitation indices, and depth to water table. The effects of temperature and water content are often statistically confounded. The objectives of this study are: (1) to analyze seasonal variation in soil water content and soil respiration in the eastern Amazon Basin where seasonal temperature variation is minor; and (2) to examine differences in soil CO2 emissions among primary forests, secondary forests, active cattle pastures, and degraded cattle pastures. Rates of soil respiration decreased from wet to dry seasons in all land uses. Grasses in the active cattle pasture were productive in the wet season and senescent in the dry season, resulting in the largest seasonal amplitude of CO2 emissions, whereas deep-rooted forests maintained substantial soil respiration during the dry season. Annual emissions were 2.0, 1.8, 1.5, and 1.0 kg C m-2 yr-1 for primary forest, secondary forest, active pasture, and degraded pasture, respectively. Emissions of CO2 were correlated with the logarithm of matric potential and with the cube of volumetric water content, which are mechanistically appropriate functions for relating soil respiration at below-optimal water contents. The parameterization of these empirical functions was not consistent with those for a temperate forest. Relating rates of soil respiration to water and temperature measurements made at some arbitrarily chosen depth of the surface horizons is simplistic. Further progress in defining temperature and moisture functions may require measurements of temperature, water content and CO2 production for each soil horizon.  相似文献
4.
陆地土壤碳循环的研究动态   总被引:48,自引:3,他引:45  
1 引 言陆地碳循环不仅关系到陆地生态系统生产力的形成,同时也影响到整个地球系统的能量平衡,是陆地生态系统结构和功能的综合体现。近几十年来,由于人类活动引起大气CO2浓度的急剧上升,并可能导致全球气候变化,而且这种变化与陆地碳循环之间存在复杂的相互反馈机制,陆地碳循环已成为生态学、气候学、土壤学、生理学及地质学等众多学科研究的共同目标。在国际地圈生物圈研究计划(IGBP)中,碳循环也是全球尺度模型化工作最初集中的主要目标[13]。然而由于陆地生态系统的多样性和复杂性,目前在陆地碳循环研究中仍存…  相似文献
5.
中国陆地土壤有机碳蓄积量估算误差分析   总被引:47,自引:7,他引:40       下载免费PDF全文
简要介绍了土壤碳蓄积量的计算方法,包括土壤类型法、植被类型法、生命地带法、相关关系法和模型方法,以及土壤有机碳蓄积量的误差分析方法.根据中国策二次土壤普查2473个典型土种剖面数据,采用土壤类型法和两种碳密度方法计算,估算的中国陆地土壤有机碳蓄积量处于615.19×10^14-1211.37×10^14g之间,平均碳密度为10.49—10.53kg·m^-2(土壤厚度为100cm)或11.52—12.04kg·m^-3(土壤平均厚度为88cm),土壤平均碳蓄积量为913.28±298.09×10^14g,估算的不确定性在20%~50%之间.其中,土壤碳计算和采样数量的差异是导致土壤碳蓄积量估算不确定性的重要因素。  相似文献
6.
陆地生态系统类型转变与碳循环   总被引:45,自引:6,他引:39       下载免费PDF全文
 土地利用变化引起的陆地生态系统类型转变对于全球碳循环有着极其重要的作用。 通过总结国内外有关森林砍伐以及森林、草地转变成农田对于碳循环的影响,阐述了可能引起全球“未知汇”现象的重要原因,强调未来中国陆地生态系统碳循环研究应充分重视陆地生态系统类型转变对于全球碳循环的影响研究,包括研究陆地生态系统的不同发展阶段(自然与退化生态系统)、利用方式的改变(森林转化为人工林或农田,草地转化为农田、退耕还林草等)所引起的碳库类型转换的增汇机理及其对全球变化响应,并指出了建立统一观测方法与规范的陆地生态系统碳通量观测网  相似文献
7.
The world's soils contain about 1500 Gt of organic carbon to a depth of 1m and a further 900 Gt from 1--2m. A change of total soil organic carbon by just 10% would thus be equivalent to all the anthropogenic CO2 emitted over 30 years. Warming is likely to increase both the rate of decomposition and net primary production (NPP), with a fraction of NPP forming new organic carbon. Evidence from various sources can be used to assess whether NPP or the rate of decomposition has the greater temperature sensitivity, and, hence, whether warming is likely to lead to an increase or decrease in soil organic carbon.Evidence is reviewed from laboratory-based incubations, field measurements of organic carbon storage, carbon isotope ratios and soil respiration with either naturally varying temperatures or after experimentally increasing soil temperatures. Estimates of terrestrial carbon stored at the Last Glacial Maximum are also reviewed. The review concludes that the temperature dependence of organic matter decomposition can be best described as: d(T) = exp[3.36 (T – 40)/(T + 31.79)] where d(T) is the normalised decomposition rate at temperature T (in °C). In this equation, decomposition rate is normalised to 1 at 40 °C.The review concludes by simulating the likely changes in soil organic carbon with warming. In summary, it appears likely that warming will have the effect of reducing soil organic carbon by stimulating decomposition rates more than NPP. However, increasing CO2 is likely to simultaneously have the effect of increasing soil organic carbon through increases in NPP. Any changes are also likely to be very slow. The net effect of changes in soil organic carbon on atmospheric CO2 loading over the next decades to centuries is, therefore, likely to be small.  相似文献
8.
暖温带落叶阔叶林碳循环的初步估算   总被引:40,自引:1,他引:39       下载免费PDF全文
 森林生态系统碳循环过程与大气中二氧化碳含量有密切的关系,直接影响着大气成分的组成,进而对全球气候变化有重要影响。以我国暖温带落叶阔叶林生态系统近10年的定位研究为基础,初步建立了该类生态系统碳循环数值模式。结果表明:暖温带落叶阔叶林典型生态系统每年从外界主要是大气中吸收的碳是10.3 t·hm-2·a-1,植物呼吸释放到大气中的碳通量为5.5 t·hm-2·a-1。森林植物干物质积存的碳量为4.8 t·hm-2·a-1,通过凋落物分解释放到大气中的碳通量为2.46 t·hm-2·a-1。森林同化的碳绝大部分以活生物呼吸和凋落物分解的形式释放到大气中去了,存留在活生物体和凋落物中的很少。通过对碳现存量的研究发现,所研究的森林生态系统碳现存量为165.05 t·hm-2,其中活生物体碳现存量为61.2 t·hm-2,死生物体碳现存量为104.05 t·hm-2 (包括土壤中碳),土壤碳现存量为96 t·hm-2。土壤碳储量占总碳储量的58%,土壤是该地区森林生态系统主要的碳库,森林生态系统土壤中碳储量的变化必然引起整个区域碳储量整体动态的变化。  相似文献
9.
湿润亚热带峰丛洼地岩溶土壤系统中碳分布及其转移   总被引:40,自引:0,他引:40  
以桂林丫吉村岩溶试验场为例,研究了湿润亚热带峰丛洼地表层岩溶带生物量碳库、凋落物碳库、土壤有机碳库(SOM)及其活泼性、有机碳分解速率、土壤中CO2浓度和土壤呼吸CO2排放,表明岩溶系统中丰富的碳库提供了系统中CO2的来源,并用δ^13C证实春夏岩溶活跃季节中岩溶输出C约60%来自土壤CO2。由此认为,驱动岩溶作用的CO2并非直接来自大气CO2,而是大气-植物-土壤-水碳素转移的结果,因而揭示了土  相似文献
10.
Cultivation of previously untilled soils usually results in release of carbon from the soil to the atmosphere, which can affect both soil fertility locally and the atmospheric burden of CO2 globally. Generalizations about the magnitude of this flux have been hampered by a lack of good quality comparative data on soil carbon stocks of cultivated and uncultivated soils. Using data from several recent studies, we have reexamined the conclusions of previous reviews of this subject. The data were divided into subsets according to whether the soils were sampled by genetic horizon or by fixed depths. Sampling by fixed depths appears to underestimate soil C losses, but both subsets of data support earlier conclusions that between 20% and 40% of the soil C is lost following cultivation. Our best estimate is a loss of about 30% from the entire soil solum. Our analysis also supports the conclusion that most of the loss of soil C occurs within the first few Years (even within two Years in some cases) following initial cultivation. Our analysis does not support an earlier conclusion that the fractional loss of soil carbon is positively correlated to the amount of carbon initially present in the uncultivated soil. We found no relation between carbon content of uncultivated soil and the percentage lost following cultivation.  相似文献
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