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1.
Lisa Robins 《EcoHealth》2007,4(3):247-263
This paper examines capacity-building measures used by the health sector relevant to natural resource management (NRM) using the delivery of two programs in Australia through its recently formalized 56 community-based regional NRM Boards as a reference point. The delivery of NRM outcomes through devolved governance arrangements has been hampered by inadequate capacity in other countries (e.g., New Zealand, Canada). The inherent complexities of NRM, coupled with professional “comfort zones,” often limit actors from looking to other sectors confronting similar issues. This paper summarizes findings from ∼70 sources in health reviewing nine major capacity-building measures. The outcomes of research evaluating the relative benefits and disbenefits of applying these measures are discussed. The paper identifies several opportunities to trial some of these measures in NRM.
Lisa RobinsEmail:
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2.
We reviewed 1333 papers published in Biotropica and the Journal of Tropical Ecology from 1995 to 2004. Only 62 percent of tropical countries were represented in our survey, with 62 percent of the publications based on research conducted in only ten countries. Sixty-two percent of papers had lead authors that were based at institutions outside the country where the research was conducted. Cross-national collaboration was limited, accounting for only 28 percent of papers with multiple authors. To evaluate if our choice of focal journals could have biased our results, we also reviewed 652 papers published in Ecology , Oecologia , Conservation Biology , and Biological Conservation for five randomly selected years from the same time period. While some differences in authorship and the geographic distribution of research existed, the results from these journals generally mirrored patterns observed in the two focal ones—almost 54 percent of publications were based on research conducted in only ten countries, and most studies had lead authors from a developed country. The results of our review suggest that the geographical distribution of research in the tropics is unequal, and that some important regions remain understudied. The results also suggest a need for a greater focus on establishing collaborative relationships with scientists from tropical countries.  相似文献
3.
Patrick Denny 《Hydrobiologia》2001,458(1-3):21-31
African wetlands have important functions and values in terms of the water cycle, water quality management and biodiversity conservation. Especially relevant is their importance in food security, the provision of tradable products, and cultural and aesthetic values for local riparian communities.In Africa, knowledge of the processes, functions and values of wetlands is slim: indeed, in many regions, wetland inventories are yet to be produced. A research strategy is proposed to address some of these issues recommending an intrinsically linked, two-pronged approach: i.e. (i) studies for inventories, assessment and monitoring of wetlands and (ii) research into processes, structure and functioning of wetland ecosystems. The former has an immediate urgency whilst the latter has a long-term perspective. It is argued that curiosity-driven, (basic) research should go hand-in-hand with problem-orientated (applied) studies. Basic research is essential for a nation's scientific and technical empowerment and development. Priority topics include studies on biological diversity and integrated studies on wetlands and water resources (including water quality and the functions and values of wetland buffers).There is clear evidence of a shortage of expertise from within Africa for these topics and the reasons are discussed. Amongst others, blame is directed towards aid strategies from the industrial North and individual research programmes by `Northern' scientists in Africa. However, commitment in Africa to the actual process of scientific research is also wanting. Overall, the North have failed to stimulate a critical mass for research whilst the South suffer from a lack of momentum and from chronic under-investment.A research, training and capacity-building scheme is presented as a viable option for ameliorating the dearth of wetland resource professionals in Africa in which partnerships and networking of institutes from the North and South is encouraged.  相似文献
4.
The Global Mercury Project (GMP) is an initiative of the United Nations in collaboration with numerous government and nongovernment organizations to promote knowledge and capacity building on the links between small-scale gold mining practices and health, ecosystem, and social factors, and to implement interventions that reduce mercury pollution and exposure caused by mining activities in developing countries. Knowledge regarding the use of mercury and the dynamics of complex environmental, health, socioeconomic, and cultural conditions in and surrounding small-scale mining sites is particularly needed for the purpose of developing appropriate community-based measures to reduce mercury-related problems. GMP strategies aim to build upon local knowledge and practices to train miners on the use of cleaner and affordable technologies of mining and mineral processing in order to minimize negative impacts. The initiative is especially proactive in facilitating transdisciplinary and participatory models of community interaction, involving local, regional, and international stakeholders in each of the strategy design, community assessment, and community intervention phases. The six participating countries are Brazil, Indonesia, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Sudan, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe. This article outlines GMP’s objectives and scope of activities and also highlights achievements, challenges, and opportunities for future development.  相似文献
5.
Objective:  To identify perceived barriers to capacity building for local research ethics oversight in El Salvador, and to set an agenda for international collaborative capacity building.
Methods:  Focus groups were formed in El Salvador which included 17 local clinical investigators and members of newly formed research ethics committees. Information about the proposed research was presented to participants during an international bioethics colloquium sponsored and organized by the St. Jude Children's Research Hospital in collaboration with the National Ethics Committee of El Salvador and the University of El Salvador. Interviews with the focus group participants were qualitatively analyzed.
Results:  Participants expressed the need to tailor the informed consent process and documentation to the local culture; for example, allowing family members to participate in decision-making, and employing shorter consent forms. Participants indicated that economic barriers often impede efforts in local capacity building. Participants valued international collaboration for mutual capacity building in research ethics oversight.
Conclusions:  Research ethics committees in El Salvador possess a basic knowledge of locally relevant ethical principles, though they need more training to optimize the application of bioethical principles and models to their particular contexts. Challenges increase the value of collaborative exchanges with ethics committee members in the United States. Further research on facilitating communication between host country and sponsor country ethics committees can maximize local research ethics expertise, and thus raise the standard of protecting human participants involved in international research.  相似文献
6.
In this article we present an international Indigenous people’s partnership project co-led by two Indigenous communities, Musqueam (Coast Salish, Canada) and Totoras (Quichua, Ecuador), as a community-driven health initiative. The Musqueam-Totoras partnership includes Indigenous organizations, universities, international agencies, government, and nongovernmental organizations to address Indigenous health concerns in both communities. Our collaborative approach provides a framework to (a) increase the development expertise of Indigenous people internationally, (b) increase skills among all participants, and (c) facilitate Indigenous knowledge mobilization and translation to promote cultural continuity. This international Indigenous people’s partnership between north and south reflects the diversity and commonalities of Indigenous knowledge, contributes to cultural revitalization, and minimizes the impact of assimilation, technology, and globalization. Indigenous people’s partnerships contribute to self-determination, which is a prerequisite to the building and maintenance of healthy communities and the promotion of social justice. The exchange of Indigenous knowledge upholds Indigenous values of respect, reciprocity, relevance, and responsibility. Given the history of colonization and the negligence of governments in the exercising of these values with respect to Indigenous communities, this contemporary exchange among Indigenous people in the Americas serves to reclaim these values and practices. International cooperation empowering Indigenous people and other marginalized groups has become fundamental for their advancement and participation in globalized economies. An international Indigenous people’s partnership provides opportunities for sharing cultural, historical, social, environmental, and economic factors impacting Indigenous health. These partnerships also create beneficial learning experiences in community-based participatory research and community-driven health initiatives, provide culturally sensitive research ethics frameworks, increase capacity building, and address basic human needs identified by participating communities.  相似文献
7.
Brazil has a biosafety law that was approved in 1995. This law provides for a horizontal type of regulation that coordinates other existing regulatory frameworks in the areas of agriculture, health and environment. Various federal government departments are responsible for implementing the law. The National Technical Biosafety Commission is the national competent authority on biosafety with overall responsibility. In the case of Bt plants or any insecticidal organism, the Agrochemical Law also applies and authorization for laboratory, greenhouse and field studies must be obtained from the Plant Protection Secretariat, the Brazilian Institute of Environment and the National Agency of Health. Furthermore, the National Environmental Council must issue a license for commercialization of any GMO. There is pressure needed for capacity building and to harmonize the regulatory and administrative frameworks among the different federal departments involved. Some perspectives and challenges for the commercial registration of transgenic crops are discussed.  相似文献
8.
利用果蝇杂交实验,进行了教学改革的尝试。通过教学实践力求将几个独立的果蝇实验集中于一个,以充分利用实验时间,增加内容,改进方法。在改革的尝试中,学生自主设计实验方案,独立完成实验内容,处于主导地位。充分发挥了学生主动性,达到了培养学生独立思考、实际操作及科研素质等综合能力的目的。  相似文献
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10.
China's rich floral diversity includes more than 33 000 vascular plant species, representing approximately 10 percent of all known plant species. Over half of these species are endemic to China. However, China's rapid economic development in the last 30 years and continuous population growth have seriously damaged plant resources in the wild and the ecological environment, resulting in a dramatic increase in the number of endangered species. There are nearly 4 000 to 5 000 higher plants that are now threatened or on the verge of extinction. To help halt the loss of Chinese plant diversity, Botanic Gardens Conservation International (BGCI) has developed a China programme and opened its first office based in Guangzhou in 2008. This office works along with Chinese partners aiming to secure Chinese plant diversity through integrated conservation approaches with reintroduction/population reinforcement, engagement of local communities in conservation activities, capacity building in horticulture and environmen tal education and public outreach.  相似文献
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