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排序方式: 共有318条查询结果,搜索用时 36 毫秒
1.
SR141716A, a potent and selective antagonist of the brain cannabinoid receptor   总被引:30,自引:0,他引:30  
SR141716A is the first selective and orally active antagonist of the brain cannabinoid receptor. This compound displays nanomolar affinity for the central cannabinoid receptor but is not active on the peripheral cannabinoid receptor. In vitro, SR141716A antagonises the inhibitory effects of cannabinoid receptor agonists on both mouse vas deferens contractions and adenylyl cyclase activity in rat brain membranes. After intraperitoneal or oral administration SR141716A antagonises classical pharmacological and behavioural effects of cannabinoid receptor agonists. This compound should prove to be a powerful tool for investigating the in vivo functions of the anandamide/cannabinoid system.  相似文献
2.
The endogenous cannabinoid receptor ligand, anandamide (AEA), is a full agonist of the vanilloid receptor type 1 (VR1) for capsaicin. Here, we demonstrate that the potency and efficacy of AEA at VR1 receptors can be significantly increased by the concomitant activation of protein kinase A (PKA). In human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells over-expressing human VR1, AEA induces a rise in cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration that is mediated by this receptor. The EC(50) for this effect was decreased five-fold in the presence of forskolin (FRSK, 1-5 microM) or the cAMP analogue, 8-Br-cAMP (10-100 microM). The effects of 8-Br-cAMP and FRSK were blocked by a selective PKA inhibitor. The FRSK (10 nM) also potently enhanced the sensory neurone- and VR1-mediated constriction by AEA of isolated guinea-pig bronchi, and this effect was abolished by a PKA inhibitor. In rat dorsal root ganglia slices, AEA-induced release of substance P, an effect mediated by VR1 activation, was enhanced three-fold by FRSK (10 nM). Thus, the ability of AEA to stimulate sensory VR1, with subsequent neuropeptide release, appears to be regulated by the state of activation of PKA. This observation supports the hypothesis that endogenous AEA might stimulate VR1 under certain pathophysiological conditions.  相似文献
3.
The mechanism by which cannabinoid compounds produce their effects in the rat brain was evaluated in this investigation. Cannabinoid receptors, quantitated by [3H]CP-55,940 binding, were found in greatest abundance in the rat cortex, cerebellum, hippocampus, and striatum, with smaller but significant binding also found in the hypothalamus, brainstem, and spinal cord. Using rat brain slice preparations, we evaluated the effect of desacetyllevonantradol on basal and forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation in the regions exhibiting the greatest cannabinoid receptor density. Desacetyllevonantradol (10 microM) reduced cyclic AMP levels in the hippocampus, frontal cortex, and striatum. In the cerebellum, however, the response to desacetyllevonantradol was biphasic with cyclic AMP accumulation being decreased at lower and increased at higher concentrations. Desacetyllevonantradol reduced cyclic AMP accumulation in isoproterenol-stimulated slices in the cortex and cerebellum, but not in the hippocampus. Cells that responded to vasoactive intestinal peptide with an increase in cyclic AMP accumulation in the hippocampus and cortex also responded to desacetyllevonantradol. The modulation of cyclic AMP accumulation by desacetyllevonantradol could be attenuated following stereotaxic implantation of pertussis toxin, supporting the involvement of a G protein in the cannabinoid response in the brain. However, other actions of cannabinoid compounds may also affect the cyclic AMP levels in brain slice preparations.  相似文献
4.
Cannabinoid receptors are widely distributed in the nuclei of the extrapyramidal motor and mesolimbic reward systems; their exact functions are, however, not known. The aim of the present study was to characterize the effects of cannabinoids on the electrically evoked release of endogenous dopamine in the corpus striatum and the nucleus accumbens. In rat brain slices dopamine release elicited by single electrical pulses was determined by fast cyclic voltammetry. Dopamine release was markedly inhibited by the OP2 opioid receptor agonist U-50488 and the D2/D3 dopamine receptor agonist quinpirole, indicating that our method is suitable for studying presynaptic modulation of dopamine release. In contrast, the CB1/CB2 cannabinoid receptor agonists WIN55212-2 (10(-6) M) and CP55940 (10(-6)-10(-5) M) and the CB1 cannabinoid receptor antagonist SR141716A (10(-6) M) had no effect on the electrically evoked dopamine release in the corpus striatum and the nucleus accumbens. The lack of a presynaptic effect on terminals of nigrostriatal and mesolimbic dopaminergic neurons is in accord with the anatomical distribution of cannabinoid receptors: The perikarya of these neurons in the substantia nigra and the ventral tegmental area do not synthesize mRNA, and hence protein, for CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors. It is therefore unlikely that presynaptic modulation of dopamine release in the corpus striatum and the nucleus accumbens plays a role in the extrapyramidal motor and rewarding effects of cannabinoids.  相似文献
5.
In mouse neuroblastoma N18TG2 cells prelabeled with [3H]arachidonic acid ([3H]AA) the biosynthesis of 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) is induced by ionomycin in a fashion sensitive to an inhibitor of diacylglycerol (DAG) lipase, RHC 80267, but not to four different phospholipase C (PLC) blockers. Pulse experiments with [3H]AA showed that ionomycin stimulation leads to the sequential formation of [3H]phosphatidic acid ([3H]PA), [3H]DAG, and [3H]2-AG. [3H]2-AG biosynthesis in N18TG2 cells prelabeled with [3H]AA was counteracted by propranolol and N-ethylmaleimide, two inhibitors of the Mg2+/Ca2(+)-dependent brain PA phosphohydrolase. Pretreatment of cells with exogenous phospholipase D (PLD) led to a strong potentiation of ionomycin-induced [3H]2-AG formation. These data indicate that DAG precursors for 2-AG in intact N18TG2 cells are obtained from the hydrolysis of PA and not through the activation of PLC. The presence of 2% ethanol during ionomycin stimulation failed to elicit the synthesis of [3H]phosphatidylethanol and did not counteract the formation of [3H]PA, thus arguing against the activation of PLD by the Ca2+ ionophore. Selective inhibitors of secretory phospholipase A2 and the acyl-CoA acylase inhibitor thimerosal significantly reduced [3H]2-AG biosynthesis. The implications of these latter findings, and of the PA-dependent pathways of 2-AG formation described here, are discussed.  相似文献
6.
Abstract: Using the endogenous cannabinoid receptor agonist anandamide, the synthetic agonist CP 55940 {[1α,2β( R )5α]-(−)-5-(1,1-dimethylheptyl)-2-[5-hydroxy-2-(3-hydroxypropyl)cyclohexyl]phenol}, and the specific antagonist SR 141716 [ N -(piperidin-1-yl)-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl-1 H -pyrazole-3-carboxamide hydrochloride], second messenger activation of the central cannabinoid receptor (CB1) was examined in rat striatal and cortical slices. The effects of these cannabinoid ligands on electrically evoked dopamine (DA) release from [3H]dopamine-prelabelled striatal slices were also investigated. CP 55940 (1 µ M ) and anandamide (10 µ M ) caused significant reductions in forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation in rat striatal slices, which were reversed in the presence of SR 141716 (1 µ M ). CP 55940 (1 µ M ) had no effect on either KCl- or neurotransmitter-stimulated 3H-inositol phosphate accumulation in rat cortical slices. CP 55940 and anandamide caused significant reductions in the release of dopamine after electrical stimulation of [3H]dopamine-prelabelled striatal slices, which were antagonised by SR 141716. SR 141716 alone had no effect on electrically evoked dopamine release from rat striatal slices. These data indicate that the CB1 receptors in rat striatum are negatively linked to adenylyl cyclase and dopamine release. That the CB1 receptor may influence dopamine release in the striatum suggests that cannabinoids play a modulatory role in dopaminergic neuronal pathways.  相似文献
7.
Ajulemic acid: A novel cannabinoid produces analgesia without a "high"   总被引:5,自引:0,他引:5  
A long-standing goal in cannabinoid research has been the discovery of potent synthetic analogs of the natural substances that might be developed as clinically useful drugs. This requires, among other things, that they be free of the psychotropic effects that characterize the recreational use of Cannabis. An important driving force for this goal is the long history of the use of Cannabis as a medicinal agent especially in the treatment of pain and inflammation. While few compounds appear to have these properties, ajulemic acid (AJA), also known as CT-3 and IP-751, is a potential candidate that could achieve this goal. Its chemical structure was derived from that of the major metabolite of Delta9-THC, the principal psychotropic constituent of Cannabis. In preclinical studies it displayed many of the properties of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs); however, it seems to be free of undesirable side effects. The initial short-term trials in healthy human subjects, as well as in patients with chronic neuropathic pain, demonstrated a complete absence of psychotropic actions. Moreover, it proved to be more effective than placebo in reducing this type of pain as measured by the visual analog scale. Unlike the narcotic analgesics, signs of dependency were not observed after withdrawal of the drug at the end of the one-week treatment period. Data on its mechanism of action are not yet complete; however, the activation of PPAR-gamma, and regulation of eicosanoid and cytokine production, appear to be important for its potential therapeutic effects.  相似文献
8.
大麻植物中大麻素成分研究进展   总被引:5,自引:0,他引:5  
陈璇  杨明  郭鸿彦 《植物学通报》2011,46(2):197-205
大麻(Cannabis sativa)是一种古老的栽培植物, 它既是一种毒品原植物, 又是一种极具开发利用价值的经济作物。大麻素是大麻植物中特有的含有烷基和单萜分子结构的一类次生代谢产物, 目前已分离出70多种, 其中包含使人致幻成瘾的四氢大麻酚(THC)。该文就大麻植物中几种主要的大麻素成分: 四氢大麻酚、大麻二酚(CBD)和大麻环萜酚(CBC)的存在特征、含量变化、生物合成途径、各关键酶及其基因、遗传方式等方面的研究进行概括和归纳, 并展望了当前大麻素的主要研究方向, 对加快我国大麻素的相关研究及大麻育种具有参考意义。  相似文献
9.
Endocannabinoids are a group of biologically active endogenous lipids that have recently emerged as important mediators in energy balance control. The two best studied endocannabinoids, anandamide (N-arachidonoylethanolamine, AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) are the endogenous ligands of the central and peripheral cannabinoid receptors. Furthermore, AEA binds to the transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 (TRPV1), a capsaicin-sensitive, non-selective cation channel. The synthesis of these endocannabinoids is catalyzed by the N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine-selective phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD) and the sn-1-selective diacylglycerol lipase (DAGL), whereas their degradation is accomplished by the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and the monoglyceride lipase (MGL), respectively. We investigated the presence of a functional endocannabinoid system in human adipose tissue from seven healthy subjects. Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue underwent biochemical and molecular biology analyses, aimed at testing the expression of this system and its functional activity. AEA and 2-AG levels were detected and quantified by HPLC. Real time PCR analyzed the expression of the endocannabinoid system and immunofluorescence assays showed the distribution of its components in the adipose tissue. Furthermore, binding assay for the cannabinoid and vanilloid receptors and activity assay for each metabolic enzyme of the endocannabinoid system gave clear evidence of a fully operating system. The data presented herein show for the first time that the human adipose tissue is able to bind AEA and 2-AG and that it is endowed with the biochemical machinery to metabolize endocannabinoids.  相似文献
10.
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