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Cloning and characterization of the gene encoding the bovine BOULE protein   总被引:4,自引:0,他引:4  
The Deleted in Azoospermia (DAZ) genes encode potential RNA-binding proteins that are expressed exclusively in the germ-line. The bovine Deleted in Azoospermia-like gene is a strong candidate for male cattle-yak infertility. In this work, with the goe goal to further reveal the genetic cause of male cattle-yak sterility, another bovine DAZ family gene, b-boule, was isolated and characterized. The b-boule gene is predicted to encode a polypeptide of 295 amino acids with an RNP-type RNA recognition domain. Tertiary structure analysis shows that b-boule binds specifically to polypyrimidine RNAs and might act as a nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle auxiliary factor during germ cell formation and morphological changes of germ cells. RT-PCR assays revealed that b-boule was expressed specifically in the adult testis. However, an extremely low level of expression was detected in the testis of sterile male cattle-yaks. Microstructure of the testes from sterile males showed that type A spermatogonia were the only germ cells present and that few germ cells developed further than the stage of pachytene spermatocytes. These results suggest that b-boule may function in bovine spermatogenesis, and that low levels of b-boule expression might lead to male sterility in cattle-yaks.  相似文献
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DAZ家族新成员BOULE蛋白的结构与功能   总被引:4,自引:0,他引:4       下载免费PDF全文
 BOULE蛋白是2001年发现的DAZ家族的新成员,是人类精子发生过程中减数分裂的关键调控因子. BOULE基因表达的改变或BOULE蛋白的缺乏可引起减数分裂阻滞和精子生成障碍,从而导致无精子症并产生不育. BOULE蛋白的一级结构中含有DAZ家族的特征结构域,包括DAZ重复和RNA结合域(RBM),因此,将其列为继DAZ、DAZL之后DAZ家族的第3个成员.本文对BOULE的发现过程、结构和定位进行了总结回顾,并重点介绍了其在精子发生减数分裂中的作用及其作用机制.  相似文献
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Genes of the DAZ (Deleted in AZoospermia) gene family, DAZ, DAZL (DAZ-Like), and BOULE, encode closely related RNA-binding proteins that are required for fertility in numerous organisms, yet the genomes of different organisms possess different complements of DAZ family genes. Thus, invertebrates such as flies and worms contain just a single DAZ homolog, boule, while genomes of vertebrates, other than catarrhine primates (Old World monkeys and hominids), possess both Boule and Dazl genes. Finally, catarrhine primates possess BOULE, DAZL, and DAZ genes. Since the DAZ genes arose recently in evolution in the catarrhine lineage, we sought to examine how the sequences and expression of this gene family may have changed after the introduction of a new member, DAZ. Based on previous results, we hypothesized that the introduction of a new member of the DAZ gene family into catarrhines could reduce functional constraint on DAZL. Surprisingly, however, we found that platyrrhine DAZL demonstrated significantly more sequence divergence than catarrhine DAZL (p=0.0006 for nucleotide and p=0.05 for amino acid sequence); however, comparison of K a/K s ratios suggests that the DAZL and BOULE genes are under similar functional constraints regardless of lineage. Thus, our data are most consistent with the hypothesis that the introduction of DAZ did not affect the evolution of DAZL or BOULE, and that a higher neutral mutation rate in platyrrhines than in catarrhines, along with the greater tolerance of DAZL for variation relative to BOULE, may be the foundation for the observed differences in sequence divergence in this gene family.  相似文献
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人Boule基因启动子区结合蛋白的生物信息学分析   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
目的:对精子发生RNA结合蛋白Boule基因启动子区结合蛋白进行生物信息学分析。方法:从基因参考序列数据库获取Boule基因启动子区序列,使用TFSEARCH程序对启动子序列中的转录因子结合位点进行预测。结果:成功获得长度为2kb的人Boule基因启动子区序列。该启动子区Thresholdscore〉90的共有60个转录因子结合位点,涉及sox家族、GATA结合蛋白家族、热休克因子家族、锌指蛋白Kruppel家族、POU家族、runt家族、同源异型框基因家族、TALE类同源结构蛋白家族、转录因子螺旋环螺旋家族、IKAROS家族、FOX家族11个家族的转录因子和3个TATAbox。结论:Boule基因表达的调控是在一定时间或空间上、一种或多种调节蛋白作用的复杂过程。调控Boule基因表达的转录因子绝大部分与胚胎发育、性别决定、个体生长密切相关。  相似文献
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During the first decades of the 20th century, many anthropologists who had previously adhered to a linear view of human evolution, from an ape via Pithecanthropus erectus(today Homo erectus) and Neanderthal to modern humans, began to change their outlook. A shift towards a branching model of human evolution began to take hold. Among the scientific factors motivating this trend was the insight that mammalian evolution in general was best represented by a branching tree, rather than by a straight line, and that several new fossil hominids were discovered that differed significantly in their morphology but seemed to date from about the same period. The ideological and practical implications of imperialism and WWI have also been identified as formative of the new evolutionary scenarios in which racial conflict played a crucial role. The paper will illustrate this general shift in anthropological theory for one particular scientist, William Sollas (1849–1936). Sollas achieved a synthesis of human morphological and cultural evolution in what I will refer to as an imperialist model. In this theoretical framework, migration, conflict, and replacement became the main mechanisms for progress spurred by ‘ ȁ8nature’s tyrant,’ natural selection.  相似文献
7.
Members of the DAZ (Deleted in AZoospermia) gene family are important players in the process of gametogenesis and their dysregulation accounts for 10% of human male infertility. Boule, the ancestor of the family, is mainly involved in male meiosis in most organisms. With the exception of Drosophila and C. elegans, nothing is known on the function of boule in non-vertebrate animals. In the present study, we report on three boule orthologues in the flatworm Macrostomum lignano. We demonstrate that macbol1 and macbol2 are expressed in testes whilst macbol3 is expressed in ovaries and developing eggs. Macbol1 RNAi blocked spermatocyte differentiation whereas macbol2 showed no effect upon RNAi treatment. Macbol3 RNAi resulted in aberrant egg maturation and led to female sterility. We further demonstrated the evolutionary functional conservation of macbol1 by introducing this gene into Drosophila bol1 mutants. Macbol1 was able to rescue the progression of fly meiotic divisions. In summary, our findings provide evidence for an involvement of boule genes in male and female gamete development in one organism. Furthermore, boule gene function is shown here for the first time in a lophotrochozoan. Our results point to a more diverse functional assignment of boule genes. Therefore, a better understanding of boule function in flatworms can help to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of and concomitant infertility in higher organisms including humans.  相似文献
8.
Reproduction is required for the survival of all mammalian animals. Spermatogenesis is an essential and complex developmental process that ultimately results in production of haploid spermatozoa. Recent studies demonstrated that Boule and stimulated by retinoic acid 8 (Stra8) played important roles in initiation meiosis in male germ cells. miR‐34c is indispensable in the late steps of spermatogenesis; remarkably, the main function of miR‐34c is to reduce cell proliferation potentiality and promote cellular apoptosis. The objectives of this study were to investigate the expression patterns of Boule, Stra8, P53 and miR‐34c in dairy goat testis and their relationship in male germ line stem cells (mGSCs). The results first revealed the expression patterns of Boule, Stra8, P53 and miR‐34c in 30 dpp, 90 dpp and adult testes of dairy goats. The expression levels of Boule, Stra8, P53 and miR‐34c in adult dairy goat testes were significantly higher than that of 30 dpp. Overexpression of Boule and Stra8 promoted the expression of miR‐34c in dairy goat mGSCs. In our previous study, we showed that miR‐34c was P53 dependent in mGSCs. These results have shown that the up‐regulation of miR‐34c was not due to P53 protein activation but which might be caused by the up‐regulation of Boule and Stra8 promoting the advance of meiosis. In addition, we found retinoic acid would decrease the expression of P53 and miR‐34c, however, did not change the expression of c‐Myc greatly. It suggested that the function of driving differentiation of dairy goat mGSCs by retinoic acid might not be caused by P53. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献
9.
Boule is a conserved gene in meiosis, which encodes RNA binding protein required for spermatocyte meiosis. Deletion of Boule was found to block meiosis in spermatogenesis, which contributes to infertility. Up to date, the expression and function of Boule in the goat testis are not known. The objectives of this study were to investigate the expression pattern of Boule in dairy goat testis and their function in male germline stem cells (mGSCs). The results first revealed that the expression level of Boule in adult testes was significantly higher than younger and immature goats, and azoospermia and male intersex testis. Over‐expression of Boule promoted the expression of meiosis‐related genes in dairy goat mGSCs. The expression of Stra8 was up‐regulated by over‐expression of Boule analyzed by Western blotting and Luciferase reporter assay. While, Cdc25a, the downstream regulator of Boule, was found not to affect the expression of Stra8, and our data illustrated that Cdc25a did not regulate meiosis via Stra8. The expression of Stra8 and Boule was up‐regulated by RA induction. Taken together, results suggest the Boule plays an important role in dairy goat spermatogenesis and that over‐expression of Boule may promote spermatogenesis and meiosis in dairy goat. J. Cell. Biochem. 114: 294–302, 2013. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.  相似文献
10.
Boule(boll)基因是DAZ基因家族的一个新成员,含有一个RNA结合域和一个DAZ重复域,是人类精子发生减数分裂过程中主要调控因子。为了研究Boule基因结构及其功能,利用生物信,息学方法对Boule蛋白相关结构、相互作用蛋白及其功能进行分析和预测。结果表明,Boule蛋白存在明显的亲水区、疏水区和卷曲螺旋;不存在信号肽、跨膜结构;主要分布在细胞质、细胞核、线粒体中;二级结构以α-螺旋、延伸链、无规则卷曲所组成,并含有非正规二级结构区;作用蛋白主要为CDC25A蛋白.功能域主要包含RRM保守域。Boule蛋白在精子发生过程中第一次减数分裂的生殖细胞中特异性表达,而在减数分裂完全阻滞的睾丸组织中不表达。因此,Boule蛋白功能可能与雄性生殖细胞减数分裂相关基因表达有关。  相似文献
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