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1.
Combined mapping of AFLP and RFLP markers in barley   总被引:56,自引:0,他引:56  
AFLP marker technology allows efficient DNA fingerprinting and the analysis of large numbers of polymorphic restriction fragments on polyacrylamide gels. Using the doubled haploids from the F1 of the cross Proctor × Nudinka, 118 AFLP markers were mapped onto a barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) RFLP map, also including five microsatellite and four protein marker loci. The AFLP markers mapped to all parts of the barley chromosomes and filled in the gaps on barley chromosomes 2L, 4L and 6 in which no RFLP loci had been mapped. Interestingly, the AFLP markers seldom interrupted RFLP clusters, but grouped next to them. The combined map covers 1873 cM, with a total of 282 markers. The merging of AFLP and RFLP markers increased the total map length; 402 cM were added to the map at the tips of chromosomes or in regions corresponding to earlier gaps. Another 375 cM resulted from mapping AFLP markers near to RFLP clusters or in between non-clustered RFLP markers.  相似文献
2.
空间条件对几种粮食作物的同工酶和细胞学特性的影响   总被引:46,自引:0,他引:46  
搭载1987年发射的两颗返地卫星(8月5—10日和9月9—17日)的几种小麦、大麦种子,经回收后初步研究表明:(1)对发芽率的影响:空间处理的种子,其发芽率与对照无差别;(2)对茎及生育期的影响:空间处理的种子长成的幼苗比对照强壮,植株高度有些品种明显的矮于对照。生育期有不同程度延长;(3)对染色体结构的影响:花粉母细胞减数分裂观察表明搭载卫星的种子当代可诱导出比地面更多的染色体桥、落后染色体及染色体数目异于正常体细胞数目的现象。小麦品种Cocorit—71经空间处理后花粉母细胞的染色体数目异常可高达20.51%,而地面对照组其花粉母细胞基本正常(2n=28);(4)对同工酶的影响:经空间处理的小麦种子酯酶、过氧化物酶的同工酶谱带空间处理的比地面对照减少。由此可见,空间处理可诱导纯合植物种子发生变异,为农作物育种创造一个新途径。  相似文献
3.
 A barley lambda-phage library was screened with (GA)n and (GT)n probes for developing microsatellite markers. The number of repeats ranged from 2 to 58 for GA and from 2 to 24 for GT. Fifteen selected microsatellite markers were highly polymorphic for barley. These microsatellite markers were used to estimate the genetic diversity among 163 barley genotypes chosen from the collection of the IPK Genebank, Germany. A total of 130 alleles were detected by 15 barley microsatellite markers. The number of alleles per microsatellite marker varied from 5 to 15. On average 8.6 alleles per locus were observed. Except for GMS004 all other barley microsatellite markers showed on average a high value of gene diversity ranging from 0.64 to 0.88. The mean value of gene diversity in the wild forms and landraces was 0.74, and even among the cultivars the gene diversity ranged from 0.30 to 0.86 with a mean of 0.72. No significant differences in polymorphism were detected by the GA and GT microsatellite markers. The estimated genetic distances revealed by the microsatellite markers were, on average , 0.75 for the wild forms, 0.72 for landraces and 0.70 among cultivars. The microsatellite markers were able to distinguish between different barley genotypes. The high degree of polymorphisms of microsatellite markers allows a rapid and efficient identification of barley genotypes. Received: 26 November 1997 / Accepted: 19 January 1998  相似文献
4.
 RFLPs, AFLPs, RAPDs and SSRs were used to determine the genetic relationships among 18 cultivated barley accessions and the results compared to pedigree relationships where these were available. All of the approaches were able to uniquely fingerprint each of the accessions. The four assays differed in the amount of polymorphism detected. For example, all 13 SSR primers were polymorphic, with an average of 5.7 alleles per primer set, while nearly 54% of the fragments generated using AFLPs were monomorphic. The highest diversity index was observed for AFLPs (0.937) and the lowest for RFLP (0.322). Principal co-ordinate analysis (PCoA) clearly separated the spring types from the winter types using RFLP and AFLP data with the two-row winter types forming an intermediate group. Only a small group of spring types clustered together using SSR data with the two-row and six-row winter varieties more widely dispersed. Direct comparisons between genetic similarity (GS) estimates revealed by each of the assays were measured by a number of approaches. Spearman rank correlation ranked over 70% of the pairwise comparisons between AFLPs and RFLPs in the same order. SSRs had the lowest values when compared to the other three assays. These results are discussed in terms of the choice of appropriate technology for different aspects of germplasm evaluation.  相似文献
5.
Barley microsatellites: allele variation and mapping   总被引:37,自引:0,他引:37  
Microsatellites have developed into a powerful tool for mapping mammalian genomes and first reports about their use in plants have been published. A database search of 228 barley sequences from GenBank and EMBL was made to determine which simple sequence repeat (SSR) motif prevails in barley. Nearly all types of SSRs were found. The (A)n and (T)n SSRs occurred more often than (C)n and (G)n for n10. Among the dinucleotide repeats, the (CG)n SSRs occurred least often. Trinucleotide repeats did not occur with n>7 and there is no correlation between the GC content in the trinucleotide motifs and the number of observed SSRs. Analysing 15 different microsatellites with 11 barleys yielded 2.1 alleles per microsatellite. Sequencing 25 putative microsatellites showed that the resolution capacity of highquality agarose gels was sufficient to determine differences of only three base paris. Five microsatellites were mapped on three different chromosomes of a barley RFLP map.  相似文献
6.
Barley stripe mosaic virus-induced gene silencing in a monocot plant   总被引:33,自引:0,他引:33  
RNA silencing of endogenous plant genes can be achieved by virus-mediated, transient expression of homologous gene fragments. This powerful, reverse genetic approach, known as virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS), has been demonstrated only in dicot plant species, where it has become an important tool for functional genomics. Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) is a tripartite, positive-sense RNA virus that infects many agriculturally important monocot species including barley, oats, wheat and maize. To demonstrate VIGS in a monocot host, we modified BSMV to express untranslatable foreign inserts downstream of the gammab gene, in either sense or antisense orientations. Phytoene desaturase (PDS) is required for synthesizing carotenoids, compounds that protect chlorophyll from photo-bleaching. A partial PDS cDNA amplified from barley was 90, 88 and 74% identical to PDS cDNAs from rice, maize and Nicotiana benthamiana, respectively. Barley infected with BSMV expressing barley, rice or maize PDS fragments became photo-bleached and accumulated phytoene (the substrate for PDS) in a manner similar to plants treated with the chemical inhibitor of PDS, norflurazon. In contrast, barley infected with wild-type BSMV, or BSMV expressing either N. benthamiana PDS or antisense green fluorescent protein (GFP), did not photo-bleach or accumulate phytoene. Thus BSMV silencing of the endogenous PDS was homology-dependent. Deletion of the coat protein enhanced the ability of BSMV to silence PDS. This is the first demonstration of VIGS in a monocot, and suggests that BSMV can be used for functional genomics and studies of RNA-silencing mechanisms in monocot plant species.  相似文献
7.
Two contrasting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars: Kepin No.7 (salt sensitive), and Jian 4 (salt tolerant) were grown in a hydroponics system containing 120 mol m-3 NaCl only and 120 mol m-3 NaCl with 1.0 mol m-3 Si (as potassium silicate). Compared with the plants treated with salt alone, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in plant leaves and H+-ATPase activity in plant roots increased, and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration in plant leaves decreased significantly for both cultivars when treated with salt and Si. The addition of Si was also found to reduce sodium but increase potassium concentrations in shoots and roots of salt-stressed barley. Sodium uptake and transport into shoots from roots was greatly inhibited by added Si under salt stress conditions. However, Si addition exhibited little effect on calcium concentrations in shoots of salt-stressed barley. Thus, Si-enhanced salt tolerance is attributed to selective uptake and transport of potassium and sodium by plants. The results of the present study suggest that Si is involved in the metabolic or physiological changes in plants. This revised version was published online in June 2006 with corrections to the Cover Date.  相似文献
8.
A number of proteins have been identified that typically accumulate in plants in response to any environmental stimulus that has a dehydrative component or is temporally associated with dehydration. This includes drought, low temperature, salinity and seed maturation. Among the induced proteins, dehydrins (late embryogenesis abundant [LEA] D-II family) have been the most commonly observed, yet we still have an incomplete knowledge of their fundamental biochemical role in the cell. Current research trends are changing this situation: immunolocalization and in vitro biochemical analyses are, through analogies to other more fully characterized proteins and molecules, shaping our understanding. In brief, dehydrins may be structure stabilizers with detergent and chaperone-like properties and an array of nuclear and cytoplasmic targets. Recent progress on the mapping of dhn genes and the inheritance of freezing tolerance in barley and other Triticeae species tentatively points to dehydrins as key components of dehydration tolerance.  相似文献
9.
Comparative genetics of flowering time   总被引:28,自引:0,他引:28  
Analysis of genes controlling flowering time (heading date) contributes to our understanding of fundamental principles of plant development and is of practical importance because of the effects of flowering time on plant adaptation and crop yield. This review discusses the extent to which plants may share common genetic mechanisms for the control of flowering time and the implications of such conservation for gene isolation from the major cereal crops. Gene isolation may exploit the small genome of rice in map-based approaches, utilizing the conservation of gene order that is revealed when common DNA markers are mapped in different species. Alternatively, mechanisms may be conserved within plants as a whole, in which case genes cloned from the model dicot Arabidopsis thaliana provide an alternative route.  相似文献
10.
A phenotypically polymorphic barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) mapping population was developed using morphological marker stocks as parents. Ninety-four doubled-haploid lines were derived for genetic mapping from an F1 using the Hordeum bulbosum system. A linkage map was constructed using 12 morphological markers, 87 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), five random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), one sequence-tagged site (STS), one intron fragment length polymorphism (IFLP), 33 simple sequence repeat (SSR), and 586 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. The genetic map spanned 1,387 cM with an average density of one marker every 1.9 cM. AFLP markers tended to cluster on centromeric regions and were more abundant on chromosome 1 (7H). RAPD markers showed a high level of segregation distortion, 54% compared with the 26% observed for AFLP markers, 27% for SSR markers, and 18% for RFLP markers. Three major regions of segregation distortion, based on RFLP and morphological markers, were located on chromosomes 2 (2H), 3 (3H), and 7 (5H). Segregation distortion may indicate that preferential gametic selection occurred during the development of the doubled-haploid lines. This may be due to the extreme phenotypes determined by alleles at morphological trait loci of the dominant and recessive parental stocks. Several molecular markers were found to be closely linked to morphological loci. The linkage map reported herein will be useful in integrating data on quantitative traits with morphological variants and should aid in map-based cloning of genes controlling morphological traits. Received: 23 August 2000 / Accepted: 15 December 2000  相似文献
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