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Re-establishing and assessing ecological integrity in riverine landscapes   总被引:17,自引:0,他引:17  
1. River–floodplain systems are among the most diverse and complex ecosystems. The lack of detailed information about functional relationships and processes at the landscape and catchment scale currently hampers assessment of their ecological status.
2. Intensive use and alteration of riverine landscapes by humans have led to severe degradation of river–floodplain systems, especially in highly industrialised countries. Recent water-related regulations and legislation focussing on high standards of ecological integrity back efforts to restore or rehabilitate these systems.
3. Most restoration projects in the past have suffered from a range of deficits, which pertain to project design, the planning process, the integration of associated disciplines, scaling issues and monitoring.
4. The so-called `Leitbild' (i.e. a target vision) assumes a key role in river restoration and the assessment of ecological integrity in general. The development of such a Leitbild requires a multistep approach. Including explicitly the first step that defines the natural, type-specific reference condition (i.e. a visionary as opposed to an operational Leitbild), has great practical advantages for restoration efforts, primarily because it provides an objective benchmark, as is required by the European Water Framework Directive and other legal documents.
5. Clearly defined assessment criteria are crucial for evaluating ecological integrity, especially in the pre- and postrestoration monitoring phases. Criteria that reflect processes and functions should play a primary role in future assessments, so as to preserve and restore functional integrity as a fundamental component of ecological integrity.
6. Case studies on the Kissimmee River (U.S.A.), the Rhine River (Netherlands and Germany), and the Drau River (Austria) are used to illustrate the fundamental principles underlying successful restoration projects of river–floodplain systems.  相似文献
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GMO生物安全评价研究进展   总被引:12,自引:1,他引:11  
讨论了GMO生物安全评价的主要内容、常用的检测方法和近年来国内外有关生物安全问题的研究进展。本文还介绍了我国生物安全管理的现状、法律法规和运行机制,并就我国今后如何加强生物安全管理提出了相应的对策。  相似文献
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Restoration of estuarine habitats is essential for the conservation and recovery of depressed Pacific salmon populations. However, assessing the functions of recently restored habitat poses a number of problems because of the transitory occurrence of salmonids in any one location. We propose assessment criteria and metrics that are based on the habitat’s capacity, opportunity, and realized function to enhance survivability of juvenile salmon. Because of the paucity of data relating capacity and opportunity attributes to realized function (e.g. growth, consumption rate, survival), there continues to be a need for manipulative experiments to assess the developmental status of restoration sites. Such a self-monitoring approach of letting the fish diagnose the ecological state of restoration would effectively address the small-scale, site-specific assessment goals and criteria, but ignores the larger-scale issues relating to the ability of diverse salmon species and life histories to occupy estuarine habitat landscapes. If coastal restoration is going to contribute the recovery of anadromous salmonid populations, a landscape perspective is fundamental to restoration planning, implementation, and particularly assessment.  相似文献
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确定优先保护的地区和群落类型对生物多样性保护尤为重要.为评价滇西北地区优先保护的植物群落类型,针对植物群落在维持栖息地稳定及生物多样性保护方面的功能,依据科学性、层次性及可操作性等原则,构建了由3个层次6个指标构成的评价指标体系.6个与群落相关的指标分别是:物种多样性、珍稀濒危植物物种种数、保护植物级别、群落稀有性、特有植物物种种数和群落特有性.通过对滇西北地区现有资料的收集整理,共选出有样地数据的群落61个,归入13个植被亚型.根据数据的分布特征,利用等级赋值的方法制定了各个指标的评分标准.运用层次分析法与专家咨询法相结合确定权重,采用综合指数法对各群落及植被亚型进行评价,再进行重分类,划分出一级、二级、三级和一般保护类型.利用ArcGIS9.3软件制作不同保护级别的植被亚型的分布图,划分出优先保护的区域.综合评价划分出一级保护群落4类,二级31类,三级23类,一般3类;一级保护植被亚型1类,二级6类,三级6类.这些优先保护类型中,一级保护类型少量,分布在贡山县西南部和泸水县西南部的高黎贡山;二级保护类型较为集中地分布在研究区西北部高海拔地区各大山系及东南部高山地区;三级保护类型主要分布在研究区东南部海拔较低的区域以及独龙江、怒江、澜沧江和金沙江流域的河谷地段.  相似文献
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