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Abstract  Ever since a feral population of the bumblebee Bombus terrestris was found in suburban Hobart, on the Australian island of Tasmania, there has been ongoing debate surrounding the capacity of this species to utilise Australian native vegetation. Although several studies have reported B. terrestris foraging on Tasmanian native vegetation, doubts have been raised as to whether this reflects successful breeding in native vegetation. This study documents the success of a colony of B. terrestris in a Tasmanian National Park, isolated from urban and agricultural areas by 10 km of sea. Examination of the larval cocoons revealed that this colony had produced at least 304 new queens and 939 workers and drones. Pollen stores found in the colony were mostly from native plants, particularly Eucalyptus. These results strongly suggest that B. terrestris is able to reproduce successfully in parts of Australia that still support almost exclusively native vegetation.  相似文献
2.
行为特征可在外来动物建立种群和扩张过程中发挥重要作用,因此,要正确理解动物入侵,常常需要仔细研究其行为机制。20世纪80年代以来,随着动物入侵规模在世界各地的迅速加剧,有关其行为机制的研究也受到了广泛关注。最近一些研究表明,一些入侵动物种内攻击和觅食等行为具有可塑性,因此它们能够灵活应对多变的环境条件,这对于种群的建立和维持至关重要;入侵动物与土著物种发生行为互作时,往往占据优势,从而取代土著物种,并有助于其地域扩张;入侵动物长距离扩散可以提高其地域扩张速度,许多行为可与扩散行为结合进一步促进扩张。今后需要加强对入侵动物的行为分析,使之全面地融合到生物入侵的研究之中。这不仅可以提高对外来物种入侵的预警和治理能力,而且为探索动物行为的奥秘以及动物间行为互作在物种进化中的意义提供了独特的机会。  相似文献
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  1. Rodents are traded as pet species, a practice that frequently results in new introduced populations. This is particularly true for tree squirrels where, often, only a few founders can establish viable colonies.
  2. Here, we review the worldwide introductions, ecology and impacts of two tree squirrel species, Callosciurus erythraeus and Callosciurus finlaysonii, and discuss the elements of a strategy to reduce squirrel introductions and settlements.
  3. C. erythraeus has established viable populations in Argentina, France, The Netherlands, Hong Kong and Japan. An introduction to Belgium may have been stopped successfully. C. finlaysonii has been introduced to Italy, Singapore and Japan. After 1950, the mean number of introduction events was one every two years.
  4. The most evident damage caused by these species is bark stripping that can be severe and may significantly impact trees and timber plantations. Data on negative impacts to native species are reported but have not yet been formally quantified. Both squirrel species carried with them parasites from the native range into the new habitats, leading to the introduction of other species.
  5. The ability of tree squirrels to establish themselves successfully, often from only a few founders, combined with their human appeal make them high‐risk species, and the pet trade should be considered as a high‐risk pathway for new introductions. A proactive approach to preventing new introductions should therefore include trade restrictions, and should be combined with public education initiatives at national and European scales.
  6. Tree squirrels represent an ‘alien species conundrum’. Experience from the UK and Italy has shown that if action is delayed until introductions are recognized as a problem, it is generally too late to control populations effectively, due to logistic, legal or economic reasons, or due to lack of public support. In the case of new populations, a rapid response mechanism is therefore critical. Once established, populations may become invasive and difficult or impossible to control.
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