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Mammalian embryos have an intimate relationship with their mothers, particularly with the placental vasculature from which embryos obtain nutrients essential for growth. It is an interesting vascular bed because maternal vessel number and diameter change dramatically during gestation and, in rodents and primates, the terminal blood space becomes lined by placental trophoblast cells rather than endothelial cells. Molecular genetic studies in mice aimed at identifying potential regulators of these processes have been hampered by lack of understanding of the anatomy of the vascular spaces in the placenta and the general nature of maternal-fetal vascular interactions. To address this problem, we examined the anatomy of the mouse placenta by preparing plastic vascular casts and serial histological sections of implantation sites from embryonic day (E) 10.5 to term. We found that each radial artery carrying maternal blood into the uterus branched into 5-10 dilated spiral arteries located within the metrial triangle, populated by uterine natural killer (uNK) cells, and the decidua basalis. The endothelial-lined spiral arteries converged together at the trophoblast giant cell layer and emptied into a few straight, trophoblast-lined "canals" that carried maternal blood to the base of the placenta. Maternal blood then percolated back through the intervillous space of the labyrinth toward the maternal side of the placenta in a direction that is countercurrent to the direction of the fetal capillary blood flow. Trophoblast cells were found invading the uterus in two patterns. Large cells that expressed the trophoblast giant cell-specific gene Plf (encoding Proliferin) invaded during the early postimplantation period in a pattern tightly associated with spiral arteries. These peri/endovascular trophoblast were detected only approximately 150-300 microm upstream of the main giant cell layer. A second type of widespread interstitial invasion in the decidua basalis by glycogen trophoblast cells was detected after E12.5. These cells did not express Plf, but rather expressed the spongiotrophoblast-specific gene Tpbp. Dilation of the spiral arteries was obvious between E10.5 and E14.5 and was associated with a lack of elastic lamina and smooth muscle cells. These features were apparent even in the metrial triangle, a site far away from the invading trophoblast cells. By contrast, the transition from endothelium-lined artery to trophoblast-lined (hemochorial) blood space was associated with trophoblast giant cells. Moreover, the shaping of the maternal blood spaces within the labyrinth was dependent on chorioallantoic morphogenesis and therefore disrupted in Gcm1 mutants. These studies provide important insights into how the fetoplacental unit interacts with the maternal intrauterine vascular system during pregnancy in mice.  相似文献
蓖麻提取物对鼠抗生育作用的实验研究   总被引:11,自引:2,他引:9  
秦晓娜  甘明哲  高平 《四川动物》2006,25(1):176-179
利用蓖麻提取物对昆明种小鼠进行了短期与长期的抗生育实验,研究发现蓖麻提取物(蓖麻油和蓖麻蛋白)对小鼠有明显的抗生育作用。蓖麻蚩白及其与蓖麻油的混合物在抗早孕方面的效果均可达到100%,蓖麻油抗着床的效果也可达到100%。蓖麻油长期抗鼠生育效果明显,在210d(正常小鼠的妊娠期是21~23d)内有效降低小鼠生育代数与产仔数,生育抑制率达80%以上。蓖麻提取物对离体小鼠子宫的影响也非常显著,通过增强小鼠子宫内部收缩有效减少着床机率。在中止妊娠的实验中发现,服用了蓖麻蛋白及其与蓖麻油的混合物的小鼠子宫内没有着床位点。  相似文献
雌性川金丝猴的邀配行为与尿液雌二醇水平的关系   总被引:10,自引:1,他引:9  
2001年10~12月及2002年9月~11月,我们对上海野生动物园一群半散养条件下的川金丝猴进行了研究,记录了群体内的4只成年雌猴的邀配行为,同时收集了观察对象的晨尿,利用放射免疫法测定其中的雌二醇含量。结果显示,在未受孕的月经周期内,雌猴的邀配行为集中在雌二醇高峰前后,雌猴在卵泡期和黄体期邀配频次显著下降,说明邀配行为受雌二醇水平的调控。同一群体内不同个体的月经周期并不同步,邀配高峰互不重叠,这可能是雌猴避免相互竞争产生的结果。利用雌二醇测定结果推断受孕日期,发现进入妊娠期后雌猴仍然频繁地向雄猴邀配,并得到雄猴的响应。妊娠期内的雌二醇水平虽有波动,但都高于月经周期内排卵前的雌二醇高峰,邀配频次与雌二醇水平没有明显的相关性,因此这一时期的邀配行为不能归结为激素作用的结果,它们应该具有其它社会功能[动物学报49(6):736~741,2003]。  相似文献
This paper presents an overview of the application of and risks of exposure to Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in pregnancy. It reviews the risks to the fetus by considering the hazards in terms of the three main components of an MRI system. These are the static magnetic field, the time-varying magnetic gradient fields and the pulsed radio frequency fields. The hazards discussed are biological effects, miscarriage, heating effects and acoustic noise exposure. This paper also presents a survey of MRI sites within the United Kingdom to ascertain the extent of MRI usage in pregnancy. To validate the situation of MRI in pregnancy a survey was sent to 352 MR units throughout the United Kingdom. The questions were grouped to assess (a) maternal MRI diagnosis (b) fetal MRI and (c) work practices for pregnant MRI staff. The results showed that 91% of sites were imaging pregnant women in need of diagnosis in the second and third trimester. This paper highlights that MRI can add information for fetal central nervous system abnormalities identified by ultrasound screening, however within the UK direct fetal imaging was only performed in 8% of sites. This paper indicates the need for research to be undertaken for specific MRI clinical conditions. It also advises that risk assessment for pregnant staff working in MRI is performed, and that there is a clear need for further research into the effects of MRI in pregnancy as there is a need for clear authoritive advice.  相似文献
During two consecutive mating seasons from August 2001 to December 2002, we observed the sexual behavior of Sichuan golden monkeys in the Chengdu Zoo and the Shanghai Wild Animal Park. We collected urine samples from females in the early morning. We also measured urinary estradiol and progesterone levels using radioimmunoassay. Based on the estradiol concentration during the menstrual cycle, we discovered that the length of the menstrual cycle was 286.33 1.67 days. The length of pregnancy was about 200 days. The level of estradiol after impregnation was significantly different with the level during the ,same period in the non-receptive part of the cycle. Thus we could diagnose early pregnancy in female Sichuan golden monkeys by checking their urinary estradiol level .  相似文献
体外受精-胚胎移植412个周期分析   总被引:8,自引:0,他引:8  
IVF-ET(in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer)的临床妊娠率受多种因素的影响:妇女年龄,子宫内膜厚度,促性腺激素(Gonadtropin,Gn)的用量,移植胚胎数以及胚胎质量。回顾性分析本生殖中心2000年9月到2002年7月的IVF/ICSI(intra cytoplasmic sperm injection)共412个周期。并将所有周期按照年龄分成3组,随年龄的增长3组的妊娠率分别是42.31%、33.70%、28%;子宫内膜的厚度与临床妊娠率无显著性相关;促性腺激素的用量与临床妊娠率呈负相关(P<0.05);移植胚胎数及优质胚胎数与临床妊娠率呈显著性正相关(P<0.05)。  相似文献
Density dependence plays a key role in life-history characteristics and population ecology of large, herbivorous mammals. We designed a manipulative experiment to test hypotheses relating effects of density-dependent mechanisms on physical condition and fecundity of North American elk (Cervus elaphus) by creating populations at low and high density. We hypothesized that if density-dependent effects were manifested principally through intraspecific competition, body condition and fecundity of females would be lower in an area of high population density than in a low-density area. Thus, we collected data on physical condition and rates of pregnancy in each experimental population. Our manipulative experiment indicated that density-dependent feedbacks affected physical condition and reproduction of adult female elk. Age-specific pregnancy rates were lower in the high-density area, although there were no differences in pregnancy of yearlings or in age at peak reproduction between areas. Age-specific rates of pregnancy began to diverge at 2 years of age between the two populations and peaked at 6 years old. Pregnancy rates were most affected by body condition and mass, although successful reproduction the previous year also reduced pregnancy rates during the current year. Our results indicated that while holding effects of winter constant, density-dependent mechanisms had a much greater effect on physical condition and fecundity than density-independent factors (e.g., precipitation and temperature). Moreover, our results demonstrated effects of differing nutrition resulting from population density during summer on body condition and reproduction. Thus, summer is a critical period for accumulation of body stores to buffer animals against winter; more emphasis should be placed on the role of spring and summer nutrition on population regulation in large, northern herbivores.  相似文献
Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) increases human trophoblast motility and invasion, an effect which is abrogated when inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is inhibited. In this study we have investigated the pathways involved in the regulation of trophoblast motility. Both basal and HGF-stimulated motility of the extravillous trophoblast cell line, SGHPL-4, were inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3-kinase) inhibitor, LY294002. HGF-stimulated iNOS expression was also inhibited by LY294002 and direct activation of PI3-kinase, using the peptide 740Y-P, led to an increase in iNOS expression and cell motility. Pretreatment with rapamycin, which acts at a point distal to PI3-kinase activation, also inhibited basal and HGF-stimulated motility. Inhibition of the p42/p44 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway but not the p38 MAPK pathway had significant inhibitory effects on HGF-stimulated but not basal trophoblast motility. Inhibition of p42/p44 MAPK also inhibited HGF-induced iNOS expression. This data demonstrate that the PI3-kinase signaling pathway is involved in basal trophoblast motility and that both MAPK and PI3-kinase signaling pathways are important in HGF-stimulated motility and iNOS expression.  相似文献
The role of zinc in reproduction   总被引:6,自引:0,他引:6  
Zinc is a very important element in the reproductive cycle of species. In humans, it is necessary for the formation and maturation of spermatozoa, for ovulation, and for fertilization. During pregnancy, zinc deficiency causes a number of anomalies: spontaneous abortion, pregnancy-related toxemia, extended pregnancy or prematurity, malformations, and retarded growth. Delivery is adversely affected by deficiency. These different effects of zinc can be explained by its multiple action on the metabolism of androgen hormones, estrogen and progesterone, together with the prostaglandins. Nuclear receptors for steroids are all zinc finger proteins. Zinc supplementation has already proven beneficial in male sterility and in reducing complications during pregnancy. However, it would be worth conducting larger-scale trials to confirm these beneficial effects.  相似文献
妊娠妇女阴道菌群的研究   总被引:5,自引:0,他引:5  
本文对31例非妊娠健康妇女、31例早期妊娠妇女、31例中期妊娠妇女和31例晚期妊娠妇女的阴道菌群,就乳杆菌、酵母菌、葡萄球菌和肠杆菌进行定性、定量分析,同时测定阴道分泌物的PH。结果表明,妊娠妇女的阴道乳杆菌和酵母菌多于非妊娠妇女,而葡萄球菌和肠杆菌却少于非妊娠妇女。乳杆菌是阴道菌群中最重要的成员,妊娠时的生态优势地位更加突出。乳杆菌在阴道的生物屏障和酸性环境的维持方面起主要作用。乳杆菌可能是预防和治疗产道感染及新生儿感染的理想的生态制剂。  相似文献
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