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The White-spectacled Bulbul, Pycnonotus xanthopygos, is an abundant and possibly invasive species in Turkey, where it has gradually expanded its distribution and breeding range in both western and southeastern directions. This study focused on its breeding biology, which is still poorly known. The breeding activity extends from February until September. The preferred nesting areas are mainly gardens and maquis groves, where 24 different nesting tree species have been identified. The clutch size is 3.3 ± 0.8 eggs per pair, nesting success 68%, hatching success 94%, fledgling success 95%, and overall breeding success 89%. While nesting success differs significantly between the years, we found no significant differences in hatching, fledging, and overall breeding success between the years studied. Despite favourable climatic conditions in the Mediterranean region, the species makes only one brood per year in a relatively extended breeding season extending over seven months, and has a relatively a high reproduction rate per nest.  相似文献
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2019年11月16至18日,在云南省西双版纳傣族自治州勐腊县勐仑镇中国科学院西双版纳热带植物园先后两次观察和拍摄到一种鹎科鸟类。经查文献并与所观察记录到鸟的形态特征进行比对,鉴定为白眉黄臀鹎(Pycnonotus goiavier),为中国新记录鸟种。  相似文献
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The sugars in fleshy fruits provide a rich source of energy to frugivorous animals. However, these carbohydrates also serve as a substrate for alcoholic fermentation by yeasts, ethanol being the main by-product of this process. Ethanol ingestion via frugivory thus occurs in a diverse assemblage of invertebrate and vertebrate taxa, including numerous species of birds. We tested the roles of ethanol as an odor cue for resource location by adult yellow-vented bulbuls (Pycnonotus xanthopygos) and as a possible appetite stimulant in feeding trials with artificial food. We hypothesized (1) that the odor of ethanol does not serve as a food-locating cue in diurnal frugivorous passerine birds, and predicted that the choice of food source and the mass of food eaten by such birds will not be influenced by the odor of ethanol. We further hypothesized (2) that food intake in passerine birds is affected by ingestion of ethanol according to its concentration [EtOH], and predicted that food intake will follow a bell-shaped curve in relation to [EtOH]. In accord with hypothesis (1) and its prediction, we found that the odor of ethanol did not affect food preferences, in either ethanol-naïve or ethanol-experienced yellow-vented bulbuls, when presented at concentrations found in naturally ripe fruit (0.0–1.0%); this suggests that the odor of ethanol is not a food-locating cue for the bulbuls. Hypothesis (2) was partially supported, namely at low [EtOH] (0–3%), food intake was constant and at high [EtOH] (3%) food intake decreased, following only the right half of the predicted bell-shaped response. Ethanol-naïve birds showed no preference towards any [EtOH] presented in two-way choice trials. However, daily food intake in ethanol-experienced bulbuls in single option trials decreased by an average of 36% when the artificial food contained the highest tested concentration of ethanol (3.0%). We suggest that decreasing food intake when food ethanol concentration is relatively high may be a means of avoiding intoxication and is related to the ethanol-metabolizing ability of the bird.  相似文献
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