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1.
Although there is a general understanding of Montagu’s harriers migration routes and wintering areas, detailed information on the species’ migration is still lacking. However, improvements in satellite tracking technology in recent years, have enabled the study of medium-sized species by means of satellite telemetry. In 2006, ten adult Montagu’s harriers were fitted with satellite transmitters in northeastern Spain and tracked during their autumn migration to their wintering grounds in sub-Saharan Africa. The migration took between 10 and 30 days, and the end point was determined using breakpoint regressions. Whereas some birds had stopovers of more than a week, others stayed at the same site for only 1 or 2 days at the most. The tagged birds ultimately established at wintering grounds located along the border of Mauritania with Mali and Senegal, a distance of nearly 3000 km from the breeding sites. These sites are situated within a small range of latitudes (14° and 17°N), although distributed over a wider range of longitudes (−15°E and −4°E), with some birds occupying sites more than 1000 km apart. The distance covered in 1 day during the migration ranged between 93 and 219 km, with peaks of traveling speed of up to 65 km/h. Harriers were recorded traveling only during daytime, covering the longest distances in the late afternoon, suggesting that they are daytime migrants. Most of the distance was covered between 1500 and 2000 hours, and no traveling was recorded between 2000 and 0500 hours. During migration, harriers flew close to the ground (40–100 m on average). Improved knowledge of the harriers’ exact wintering sites may provide insights on the problems Montagu’s harriers face during the winter, highlighting the need to take into account what happens in both the breeding and wintering grounds to implement successful conservation measures.  相似文献
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The development of the breeding and non-breeding populations of the White-headed Duck, Oxyura leucocephala, in Turkey was analysed based on all available records from the period 1966–2016 from 99 different areas. Breeding is confined to Inner Anatolia and the eastern parts of the country. The breeding population had been estimated as 200–250 pairs in the period 1996–2001 but recent observations show that it does now not exceed 80–125 pairs which is a decline of about 50% within two decades. The non-breeding winter population comprises approximately 8,500–10,000 individuals. Burdur Lake has traditionally housed more than 90% of the population but is no longer a significant resting place. The numbers started to decrease from more than 10,000 birds at the beginning of the 1990s to a few hundred in the early 2000s. Now only very small numbers overwinter there. The reason seems to be a combination of water pollution and decreasing water level. After a period of more than 10 years, the numbers in Turkey started to increase again, and most birds are now concentrated at Manyas Lake in Western Anatolia. In 2016, the population reached a winter maximum of approximately 6,000. In the post-breeding season, up to 4,000 individuals were recorded in Eastern Anatolia in October 2014 which is far more than has ever been recorded in this season before.  相似文献
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In the face of hybridization, species integrity can only be maintained through post-zygotic isolating barriers (PIBs). PIBs need not only be intrinsic (i.e. hybrid inviability and sterility caused by developmental incompatibilities), but also can be extrinsic due to the hybrid's intermediate phenotype falling between the parental niches. For example, in migratory species, hybrid fitness might be reduced as a result of intermediate migration pathways and reaching suboptimal wintering grounds. Here, we test this idea by comparing the juvenile to adult survival probabilities as well as the wintering grounds of pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca), collared flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis) and their hybrids using stable isotope ratios of carbon (delta13C) and nitrogen (delta15N) in feathers developed at the wintering site. Our result supports earlier observations of largely segregated wintering grounds of the two parental species. The isotope signature of hybrids clustered with that of pied flycatchers. We argue that this pattern can explain the high annual survival of hybrid flycatchers. Hence, dominant expression of the traits of one of the parental species in hybrids may substantially reduce the ecological costs of hybridization.  相似文献
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Pelagic seabirds breeding at high latitudes generally split their annual cycle between reproduction, migration, and wintering. During the breeding season, they are constrained in their foraging range due to reproduction while during winter months, and they often undertake long‐distance migrations. Black‐browed albatrosses (Thalassarche melanophris) nesting in the Falkland archipelago remain within 700 km from their breeding colonies all year‐round and can therefore be considered as resident. Accordingly, at‐sea activity patterns are expected to be adjusted to the absence of migration. Likewise, breeding performance is expected to affect foraging, flying, and floating activities, as failed individuals are relieved from reproduction earlier than successful ones. Using geolocators coupled with a saltwater immersion sensor, we detailed the spatial distribution and temporal dynamics of at‐sea activity budgets of successful and failed breeding black‐browed albatrosses nesting in New Island, Falklands archipelago, over the breeding and subsequent nonbreeding season. The 90% monthly kernel distribution of failed and successful breeders suggested no spatial segregation. Both groups followed the same dynamics of foraging effort both during daylight and darkness all year, except during chick‐rearing, when successful breeders foraged more intensively. Failed and successful breeders started decreasing flying activities during daylight at the same time, 2–3 weeks after hatching period, but failed breeders reached their maximum floating activity during late chick‐rearing, 2 months before successful breeders. Moon cycle had a significant effect on activity budgets during darkness, with individuals generally more active during full moon. Our results highlight that successful breeders buffer potential reproductive costs during the nonbreeding season, and this provides a better understanding of how individuals adjust their spatial distribution and activity budgets according to their breeding performance in absence of migration.  相似文献
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There is compelling evidence that Afro‐Palaearctic (A‐P) migrant bird populations have declined in Europe in recent decades, often to a greater degree than resident or short‐distance migrants. There appear to have been two phases of decline. The first in the 1960s–1970s, and in some cases into the early 1980s, largely affected species wintering predominantly in the arid Sahelian zone, and the second since the 1980s has mostly affected species wintering in the humid tropics and Guinea forest zone. Potential drivers of these declines are diverse and are spread across and interact within the migratory cycle. Our knowledge of declining species is generally better for the breeding than the non‐breeding parts of their life cycles, but there are significant gaps in both for many species. On the breeding grounds, degradation of breeding habitats is the factor affecting the demography of the largest number of species, particularly within agricultural systems and woodland and forests. In the non‐breeding areas, the interacting factors of anthropogenic habitat degradation and climatic conditions, particularly drought in the Sahel zone, appear to be the most important factors. Based on our synthesis of existing information, we suggest four priorities for further research: (1) use of new and emerging tracking technologies to identify migratory pathways and strategies, understand migratory connectivity and enable field research to be targeted more effectively; (2) undertake detailed field studies in sub‐Saharan Africa and at staging sites, where we understand little about distribution patterns, habitat use and foraging ecology; (3) make better use of the wealth of data from the European breeding grounds to explore spatial and temporal patterns in demographic parameters and relate these to migratory pathways and large‐scale patterns of habitat change and climatic factors; and (4) make better use of remote sensing to improve our understanding of how and where land cover is changing across these extensive areas and how this impacts A‐P migrants. This research needs to inform and underpin a flyway approach to conservation, evaluating a suite of drivers across the migratory cycle and combining this with an understanding of land management practices that integrate the needs of birds and people in these areas.  相似文献
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During recent years, predictive modelling techniques have been increasingly used to identify regional patterns of species spatial occurrence, to explore species–habitat relationships and to aid in biodiversity conservation. In the case of birds, predictive modelling has been mainly applied to the study of species with little variable interannual patterns of spatial occurrence (e.g. year‐round resident species or migratory species in their breeding grounds showing territorial behaviour). We used predictive models to analyse the factors that determine broad‐scale patterns of occurrence and abundance of wintering Swainson's hawks (Buteo swainsoni). This species has been the focus of field monitoring in its wintering ground in Argentina due to massive pesticide poisoning of thousands of individuals during the 1990s, but its unpredictable pattern of spatial distribution and the uncertainty about the current wintering area occupied by hawks led to discontinuing such field monitoring. Data on the presence and abundance of hawks were recorded in 30 × 30 km squares (n = 115) surveyed during three austral summers (2001–03). Sixteen land‐use/land‐cover, topography, and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) variables were used as predictors to build generalized additive models (GAMs). Both occurrence and abundance models showed a good predictive ability. Land use, altitude, and NDVI during spring previous to the arrival of hawks to wintering areas were good predictors of the distribution of Swainson's hawks in the Argentine pampas, but only land use and NDVI were entered into the model of abundance of the species in the region. The predictive cartography developed from the models allowed us to identify the current wintering area of Swainson's hawks in the Argentine pampas. The highest occurrence probability and relative abundances for the species were predicted for a broad area of south‐eastern pampas that has been overlooked so far and where neither field research nor conservation efforts aiming to prevent massive mortalities has been established.  相似文献
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A fragmentary skull of a small passerine from the mid-Holocene organic-rich deposits at Florisbad, South Africa, shows a pattern of distinctive characters that allows its identification as a Cercomela chat. It resembles most closely the Familiar Chat C. familiaris and Karoo Chat C. schlegelii, which are still part of the avifauna in this part of South Africa. Furthermore, the significance of several characters of the skull for hypotheses on the phylogeny of Muscicapoidea in general, and Saxicolinae in particular, is discussed.  相似文献
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We assessed the nutritional condition and established reference values for serum chemistry parameters in a long distance migrant bird of prey, the Swainson's Hawk (Buteo swainsoni), wintering in central Argentina. We analyzed serum concentration of urea, uric acid, cholesterol, and triglycerides and assessed age and sex related differences in these parameters. A body condition index was obtained from the resultant residuals of the regression of body mass and a morphometric measure. No statistical differences were observed among sex and age groups for urea, uric acid and triglyceride serum concentration. However, cholesterol concentration differed among male and female hawks, which could be related to the gain of body mass in wintering grounds at differential rates. The mean values of the four parameters were in the range of those recorded in the Common Buzzard (Buteo buteo), indicating good nutritional condition of the population we studied. Forearm length was the morphometric variable that better correlated with body mass. The resultant body condition index was only correlated with triglyceride concentration, suggesting that this index could be valuable in future work dealing with the assessment of body fat storage in wintering and breeding hawks, as well as in stopover points on the migratory route.  相似文献
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