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1.
Significance of predation by protists in aquatic microbial food webs   总被引:30,自引:0,他引:30  
Predation in aquatic microbial food webs is dominated by phagotrophic protists, yet these microorganisms are still understudied compared to bacteria and phytoplankton. In pelagic ecosystems, predaceous protists are ubiquitous, range in size from 2 μm flagellates to >100 μm ciliates and dinoflagellates, and exhibit a wide array of feeding strategies. Their trophic states run the gamut from strictly phagotrophic, to mixotrophic: partly autotrophic and partly phagotrophic, to primarily autotrophic but capable of phagotrophy. Protists are a major source of mortality for both heterotrophic and autotrophic bacteria. They compete with herbivorous meso- and macro-zooplankton for all size classes of phytoplankton. Protist grazing may affect the rate of organic sinking flux from the euphotic zone. Protist excretions are an important source of remineralized nutrients, and of colloidal and dissolved trace metals such as iron, in aquatic systems. Work on predation by protists is being facilitated by methodological advances, e.g., molecular genetic analysis of protistan diversity and application of flow cytometry to study population growth and feeding rates. Examples of new research areas are studies of impact of protistan predation on the community structure of prey assemblages and of chemical communication between predator and prey in microbial food webs. This revised version was published online in August 2006 with corrections to the Cover Date.  相似文献
2.
The hypertrophic Lake Zwemlust, a small water body used as a swimming pool, was characterized by algal blooms in summer, reducing the Secchi disk transparency to less than 0.3 m. Since in The Netherlands a Secchi disk transparency of 1 m is obligatory for swimming waters, corrective measures were called for to improve the light climate of the lake. In March, 1987, as an experiment, the lake was drained by pumping out the water to facilitate fish elimination. Planktivorous and benthivorous fish species, which were predominant, were removed by seine- and electro-fishing. After the lake had refilled by seepage it was restocked by a new simple fish community comprising pike (Esox lucius) and rudd (Scardinius erythrophthalmus) only. Stacks of willow twigs (Salix) and macrophytes (roots ofNuphar lutea and seedlings ofChara globularis) were introduced into the lake as spawning grounds and refuges for the pike against cannibalism and as shelter for the zooplankton. The effects of this food web manipulation on the light climate, phytoplankton, zooplankton, fish, macrophytes, macrofauna and on the nutrient concentrations were monitored during 1987 and 1988. In summer 1987, despite of high nutrient concentrations, the phytoplankton density was low, due to control by zooplankton, causing a Secchi disk transparency of 2.5 m, the maximum depth. Chlorophyll-a concentrations were low (<5 g Chl.l–1), blooms of cyanobacteria did not occur and a shift from rotifers to cladocerans took place. In 1988, however, also some negative effects were noticed. Macrophytes and filamentous green algae reached a much higher biomass (50–60% cover of the lake bottom) than in 1987; some species, growing through the entire water column, interfered with the lake's recreational use. Associated with the macro-vegetation and possibly with the absence of larger cyprinids, the diet of which also comprises snails, a large scale development of the snail population, among themLymnaea peregra var.ovata took place. This species is known to act as an intermediate host of the bird-parasitizing trematodeTrichobilharzia ocellata, the cercariae of which cause an itching sensation at the spot of penetration of the human skin, accompanied by rash (schistosome dermatitis or swimmers' itch); in July, 1988, about 40% of the bathers complained about this itching. A positive effect of the macrophytes and filamentous green algae was the high uptake of nitrogen, resulting in a low nitrogen concentration in the lake and growth limitation of the phytoplankton population by nitrogen in the summer of 1988. In 1988 the cladocerans were abundant in April only; and unlike in 1987, in the summer of 1988 there was a shift from cladocerans to rotifers. Therefore, only in early spring (April) zooplankton grazing controlled phytoplankton growth and in summer nitrogen limitation was the major controlling factor, keeping chlorophyll-a concentrations low.  相似文献
3.
《Hydrobiologia》1990,(1):187-203
Since indirect effects, feedback mechanisms and time lag play an important role in top-down manipulated food webs, conclusions regarding the reliability of biomanipulation as a management tool should be derived only from whole-lake studies, the results of which were followed for at least three to five years. There are only a few experiments and applications of that type from which the following conclusions can be drawn: (1) Food web manipulation should be combined with resource limitation measures (nutrients or light) if a ‘biomanipulation-efficiency threshold of the phosphorus loading’ is exceeded. (2) The critical biomass of undesirable fish shows a very wide range of variation (20–1000 kg ha−1) and depends on several factors, like species and age of fish, total food assemblage, refugia etc. (3) The maximum possible stability of food web manipulation is probably achieved at a biomass of undesirable fish a little below the critical biomass rather than by extermination of these fish. (4) High piscivore diversity increases stability and reliability of food web manipulations. (5) Various techniques of food web manipulation should be combined, except poisoning the entire fish community.  相似文献
4.
GSDS: 基因结构显示系统   总被引:22,自引:1,他引:21       下载免费PDF全文
郭安源  朱其慧  陈新  罗静初 《遗传》2007,29(8):1023-1026
构建了一个用于绘制基因结构示意图的网站系统(http://gsds.cbi.pku.edu.cn/)。用户可提交核酸序列、NCBI核酸序列号或基因外显子位置信息, 得到基因结构示意图; 并可指定在基因结构图上标注某些特定区域。系统允许用户同时输入多个基因, 并指定输出次序和标注区域。结果可用位图和矢量图两种图形格式显示。点击位图格式结果, 可以查看相应序列。系统提供中英文两种用户界面。  相似文献
5.
The role of fungi in the nutrition of stream invertebrates   总被引:17,自引:0,他引:17  
Dead leaves falling into streams are an important food source for many invertebrates. They are generally made more palatable and more nutritious if they are first colonized by aquatic hyphomycetes and other micro-organisms. At least two mechanisms appear to be responsible for this conditioning effect: microbial production (addition of easily digested microbial compounds to the nutritionally poor leaf substrate), and microbial catalysis (conversion of indigestible leaf substances into digestible subunits by microbial enzymes). Different invertebrate species vary in their ability to take advantage of microbial conditioning. This appears to be influenced by their mobility, the range of their food resources and their ability to overcome defense mechanisms of leaf-colonizing microorganisms.  相似文献
6.
T. J. Kwak  Joy B. Zedler 《Oecologia》1997,110(2):262-277
Carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur stable isotopes were used to characterize the food webs (i.e., sources of carbon and trophic status of consumers) in Tijuana Estuary and San Dieguito Lagoon. Producer groups were most clearly differentiated by carbon, then by sulfur, and least clearly by nitrogen isotope measurements. Consumer 15N isotopic enrichment suggested that there are four trophic levels in the Tijuana Estuary food web and three in San Dieguito Lagoon. A significant difference in multiple isotope ratio distributions of fishes between wetlands suggested that the food web of San Dieguito Lagoon is less complex than that of Tijuana Estuary. Associations among sources and consumers indicated that inputs from intertidal macroalgae, marsh microalgae, and Spartina foliosa provide the organic matter that supports invertebrates, fishes, and the light-footed clapper rail (Rallus longirostris levipes). These three producers occupy tidal channels, low salt marsh, and mid salt marsh habitats. The only consumer sampled that appears dependent upon primary productivity from high salt marsh habitat is the sora (Porzana carolina). Two- and three-source mixing models identified Spartina as the major organic matter source for fishes, and macroalgae for invertebrates and the light-footed clapper rail in Tijuana Estuary. In San Dieguito Lagoon, a system lacking Spartina, inputs of macroalgae and microalgae support fishes. Salicornia virginica, S. subterminalis, Monanthochloe littoralis, sewage- derived organic matter, and suspended particulate organic matter were deductively excluded as dominant, direct influences on the food web. The demonstration of a salt marsh–channel linkage in these systems affirms that these habitats should be managed as a single ecosystem and that the restoration of intertidal marshes for endangered birds and other biota is compatible with enhancement of coastal fish populations; heretofore, these have been considered to be competing objectives. Received: 24 April 1996 / Accepted: 24 October 1996  相似文献
7.
Ecology of metal hyperaccumulation   总被引:15,自引:3,他引:12  
Robert S.  Boyd 《The New phytologist》2004,162(3):563-567
8.
9.
Insect-resistant transgenic plants in a multi-trophic context   总被引:15,自引:0,他引:15  
So far, genetic engineering of plants in the context of insect pest control has involved insertion of genes that code for toxins, and may be characterized as the incorporation of biopesticides into classical plant breeding. In the context of pesticide usage in pest control, natural enemies of herbivores have received increasing attention, because carnivorous arthropods are an important component of insect pest control. However, in plant breeding programmes, natural enemies of herbivores have largely been ignored, although there are many examples that show that plant breeding affects the effectiveness of biological control. Negative influences of modified plant characteristics on carnivorous arthropods may induce population growth of new, even more harmful pest species that had no pest status prior to the pesticide treatment. Sustainable pest management will only be possible when negative effects on non-target, beneficial arthropods are minimized. In this review, we summarize the effects of insect-resistant crops and insect-resistant transgenic crops, especially Bt crops, from a food web perspective. As food web components, we distinguish target herbivores, non-target herbivores, pollinators, parasitoids and predators. Below-ground organisms such as Collembola, nematodes and earthworms should also be included in risk assessment studies, but have received little attention. The toxins produced in Bt plants retain their toxicity when bound to the soil, so accumulation of these toxins is likely to occur. Earthworms ingest the bound toxins but are not affected by them. However, earthworms may function as intermediaries through which the toxins are passed on to other trophic levels. In studies where effects of insect-resistant (Bt) plants on natural enemies were considered, positive, negative and no effects have been found. So far, most studies have concentrated on natural enemies of target herbivores. However, Bt toxins are structurally rearranged when they bind to midgut receptors, so that they are likely to lose their toxicity inside target herbivores. What happens to the toxins in non-target herbivores, and whether these herbivores may act as intermediaries through which the toxins may be passed on to the natural enemies, remains to be studied.  相似文献
10.
SUMMARY 1. One of the most controversial issues in biomanipulation research relates to the conditions required for top-down control to cascade down from piscivorous fish to phytoplankton. Numerous experiments have demonstrated that Phytoplankton biomass Top-Down Control (PTDC) occurs under the following conditions: (i) in short-term experiments, (ii) shallow lakes with macrophytes, and (iii) deep lakes of slightly eutrophic or mesotrophic state. Other experiments indicate that PTDC is unlikely in (iv) eutrophic or hypertrophic deep lakes unless severe light limitation occurs, and (v) all lakes characterised by extreme nutrient limitation (oligo to ultraoligotrophic lakes).
2. Key factors responsible for PTDC under conditions (i) to (iii) are time scales preventing the development of slow-growing inedible phytoplankton (i), shallow depth allowing macrophytes to become dominant primary producers (ii), and biomanipulation-induced reduction of phosphorus (P) availability for phytoplankton (iii).
3. Under conditions (iv) and (v), biomanipulation-induced reduction of P-availability might also occur but is insufficient to alter the epilimnetic P-content enough to initiate effective bottom-up control (P-limitation) of phytoplankton. In these cases, P-loading is much too high (iv) or P-content in the lake much too low (v) to initiate or enhance P-limitation of phytoplankton by a biomanipulation-induced reduction of P-availability. However, PTDC may exceptionally result under condition (iv) if high mixing depth and/or light attenuation cause severe light limitation of phytoplankton.
4. Recognition of the five different conditions reconciles previous seemingly contradictory results from biomanipulation experiments and provides a sound basis for successful application of biomanipulation as a tool for water management.  相似文献
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