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1.
Varroa jacobsoni (Acari: Varroidae) is more than one species   总被引:5,自引:0,他引:5  
Varroa jacobsoni was first described as a natural ectoparasitic mite of the Eastern honeybee (Apis cerana) throughout Asia. It later switched host to the Western honeybee (A. mellifera) and has now become a serious pest of that bee worldwide. The studies reported here on genotypic, phenotypic and reproductive variation among V. jacobsoni infesting A. cerana throughout Asia demonstrate that V. jacobsoni is a complex of at least two different species. In a new classification V. jacobsoni is here redefined as encompassing nine haplotypes (mites with distinct mtDNA CO-I gene sequences) that infest A. cerana in the Malaysia–Indonesia region. Included is a Java haplotype, specimens of which were used to first describe V. jacobsoni at the beginning of this century. A new name, V. destructor n. sp., is given to six haplotypes that infest A. cerana on mainland Asia. Adult females of V. destructor are significantly larger and less spherical in shape than females of V. jacobsoni and they are also reproductively isolated from females of V. jacobsoni. The taxonomic positions of a further three unique haplotypes that infest A. cerana in the Philippines is uncertain and requires further study.Other studies reported here also show that only two of the 18 different haplotypes concealed within the complex of mites infesting A. cerana have become pests of A. mellifera worldwide. Both belong to V. destructor, and they are not V. jacobsoni. The most common is a Korea haplotype, so-called because it was also found parasitizing A. cerana in South Korea. It was identified on A. mellifera in Europe, the Middle East, Africa, Asia, and the Americas. Less common is a Japan/Thailand haplotype, so-called because it was also found parasitizing A. cerana in Japan and Thailand. It was identified on A. mellifera in Japan, Thailand and the Americas.Our results imply that the findings of past research on V. jacobsoni are applicable mostly to V. destructor. Our results will also influence quarantine protocols for bee mites, and may present new strategies for mite control.  相似文献
2.
周婷  姚军  王强  王风忠 《昆虫学报》2004,47(4):530-533
 微孢子虫Nosema apis和狄斯瓦螨微孢子虫Nosema apis和狄斯瓦螨 Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae)均为危害意蜂Apis mellifera的重要寄生虫,该文对其危害后意蜂血淋巴蛋白质含量的变化进行了研究。用考马斯亮蓝法测定了意蜂受侵染后血淋巴的蛋白质总量,并用高压超薄层等电点聚焦法进行血淋巴蛋白质分类。结果显示,病蜂血淋巴蛋白质总量,在人工感染微孢子虫后1~10天呈微孢子虫Nosema apis和狄斯瓦螨 Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae)均为危害意蜂Apis mellifera的重要寄生虫,该文对其危害后意蜂血淋巴蛋白质含量的变化进行了研究。用考马斯亮蓝法测定了意蜂受侵染后血淋巴的蛋白质总量,并用高压超薄层等电点聚焦法进行血淋巴蛋白质分类。结果显示,病蜂血淋巴蛋白质总量,在人工感染微孢子虫后1~10天呈上升趋势,然后逐渐下降,感染后12~27天保持在感染前意蜂血淋巴总蛋白质含量水平以下。螨侵染后意蜂血淋巴蛋白质含量明显增高,与健康意蜂相比差异极显著。高压超薄层等电点聚焦分析表明:狄斯瓦螨自然侵染意蜂后,意蜂血淋巴蛋白质组分与健康对照组相比发生了明显改变。这些结果提示,意蜂对于微孢子虫或狄斯瓦螨的侵染产生了一定的免疫反应。  相似文献
3.
The potential of Hirsutella thompsonii Fisher and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschinkoff) as biological control agents of the parasitic mite, Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman was evaluated in the laboratory and in observation hives. In the laboratory, time required for 90% cumulative mortality of mites (LT(90)) was 4.16 (3.98-4.42) days for H. thompsonii and 5.85 (5.48-7.43) days for M. anisopliae at 1.1 x 10(3) conidia mm(-2). At a temperature (34+/-1 degrees C) similar to that of the broodnest in a honey bee colony, Apis mellifera L., H. thompsonii [LC(90)=9.90 x 10(1) (5.86-19.35) conidia mm(-2) at Day 7] and M. anisopliae [LC(90)=7.13 x 10(3) (2.80-23.45) conidia mm(-2) at Day 7] both showed significant virulence against V. destructor. The applications of H. thompsonii to observation hives resulted in significant mortality of mites, and reduction of the number of mites per bee 21 and 42 days post-treatments. The treatments did not significantly affect the mite population in sealed brood. However, the fungus must have persisted because infected mites were still observed [82.97+/-(0.6)%] 42 days post-treatment. In addition, the fungus was found to sporulate on the host. A small percentage [2.86+/-(0.2)%] of dead mites found in the control hives also showed fungal infection, suggesting that adult bees drifted between hives and disseminated the fungus. H. thompsonii was harmless to the honey bees at the concentrations applied and did not have any deleterious effects on the fecundity of the queens. Microbial control with fungal pathogens provides promising new avenues for control of V. destructor and could be a useful component of an integrated pest management program for the honey bee industry.  相似文献
4.
Abstract The parasitic mite Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman is a major pest of the honeybee Apis mellifera L. throughout the world. Chemical agents currently used for mite control leave contaminating residues and promote pesticide resistance. As an alternative means of control, it would be useful to identify natural substances enabling bees to detect Varroa inside brood cells. These substances could then be used to trigger mite hygienic behaviour by bees.
In this study several techniques were used to screen substances that might allow detection of infested brood cells by bees. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis was performed on substances extracted in dichloromethane from the contents of brood cells. Solid phase microextraction and solid injection were performed on substances obtained from living and dead Varroa, respectively. Electroantennography was performed to assess the sensitivity of olfactory receptors in bee antennae to some of these substances.
Principal component analysis based on proportions of cuticular substances allowed discrimination between bees and other cell contents. Foundress Varroa exhibited the greatest dissimilarity to healthy pupae that were used as controls. Immature Varroa and faecal material were intermediate. High molecular weight compounds, mainly dimethylalkanes, were proportionally the most characteristic components of foundress Varroa . This finding suggests that these compounds would be the most apt to induce uncapping of cells infested by Varroa . Solid-phase microextraction and solid injection demonstrated the presence of aliphatic acids, esters, and one alcohol, eicosenol, in Varroa . Electroantennographic recordings showed that mite-resistant bees were more responsive to some acids and one ester. We speculate that these compounds may be involved in recognition of living Varroa by honeybees.  相似文献
5.
钠离子通道与蜜蜂狄斯瓦螨对氟胺氰菊酯的抗性机理   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
周婷  王强  姚军 《昆虫知识》2003,40(6):491-495
狄斯瓦螨Varroa destructor是全世界蜜蜂最严重的寄生虫,目前,它对主要防治药物——拟除虫菊酯类的氟胺氰菊酯已产生明显抗性,严重影响其防治效果。近年来神经生理学研究结果证实:电压门控的钠离子通道是拟除虫菊酯作用的位点。钠通道结构的改变,是拟除虫菊酯类杀虫剂毒理的主要基础,也是产生抗药性的基础。该文介绍了近年来国内外研究电压门控钠离子通道、拟除虫菊酯对钠通道的作用、钠通道与拟除虫菊酯的抗性和狄斯瓦螨对氟胺氰菊酯抗性机理研究的新进展。  相似文献
6.
蜜蜂巢房大小影响狄斯瓦螨的繁殖行为   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
在具有相同类型幼虫的雄蜂和工蜂巢房中,人工接入狄斯瓦螨Varroa destructor Anderson&Trueman,比较巢房大小不同,对于螨繁殖的影响.结果显示狄斯瓦螨在具有工蜂幼虫的工蜂房(WW)中的繁殖率为94.4%,而在具有工蜂幼虫的雄蜂房(WD)中繁殖率只有27.7%,差异极显著.在具有工蜂幼虫的工蜂房中,每只雌螨产出后代的平均数为3.35±1.56只;在具有工蜂幼虫的雄蜂房中每只雌螨产出后代的平均数为0.49±0.93只,差异极显著.表明在具有相同类型幼虫存在的情况下,狄斯瓦螨喜欢较小的巢房,狄斯瓦螨在较小巢房中的繁殖能力明显高于较大的巢房.  相似文献
7.
The Varroa mite, Varroa destructor, is recognized as the most serious pest of both managed and feral Western honey bee (Apis mellifera) in the world. The mite has developed resistance to fluvalinate, an acaricide used to control it in beehives, and fluvalinate residues have been found in the beeswax, necessitating an urgent need to find alternative control measures to suppress this pest. Accordingly, we investigated the possibility of using the fungus, Hirsutella thompsonii, as a biocontrol agent of the Varroa mite. Among the 9 isolates of H. thompsonii obtained from the University of Florida and the USDA, only the 3 USDA isolates (ARSEF 257, 1947 and 3323) were infectious to the Varroa mite in laboratory tests. The mite became infected when it was allowed to walk on a sporulating H. thompsonii culture for 5 min. Scanning electron micrographs revealed that the membranous arolium of the mite leg sucker is the focus of infection where the fungal conidia adhered and germinated. The infected mites died from mycosis, with the lethal times to kill 50% (LT(50)s) dependent on the fungal isolates. Thus, the LT(50)s were 52.7, 77.2, and 96.7h for isolates 3323, 257, and 1947, respectively. Passage of H. thompsonii through Varroa mite three times significantly reduced the LT(50)s of isolates 257 and 1947 (P<0.05) but not the LT(50) of isolate 3323.The fungus did not infect the honey bee in larval, prepupal, pupal, and adult stages under our laboratory rearing conditions. Our encouraging results suggest that some isolates of H. thompsonii have the potential to be developed as a biocontrol agent for V. destructor. However, fungal infectivity against the mites under beehive conditions needs to be studied before any conclusion can be made.  相似文献
8.
In Argentina, studies on Varroa destructor resistance to coumaphos are still unknown. At present, high infestation levels of V. destructor are being detected in colonies of Apis mellifera after treatment with this acaricide. The aim of the present study was to determine the LC50 of coumaphos in V. destructor from four apiaries with high mite density after treatment with coumaphos. The LC50’s were 112, 319, 127 and 133 μg/Petri dish for mites from the four apiaries. Significant LC50 differences were detected between resistant and susceptible mites. LC50 increased 197–559-fold when compared to the corresponding baseline, suggesting the development of resistance. These results are the first report of resistance to coumaphos in V. destructor in Argentina.  相似文献
9.
Apitol®, with cymiazole hydrochloride as the active ingredient, is used in bee-keeping against the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor. The preparation was evaluated for genotoxicity in cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Sister chromatid exchange, the mitotic index and the cell proliferation index were determined for three experimental concentrations of Apitol® (0.001, 0.01 and 0.1 mg/ml). All concentrations significantly (p < 0.001) increased the mitotic index (MI = 7.35 ± 0.18%, 8.31 ± 0.20% and 12.33 ± 0.25%, respectively), the proliferative index (PI = 1.83 ± 0.01, 1.84 ± 0.01 and 1.88 ± 0.02, respectively) and the frequency of sister chromatid exchange (SCE = 8.19 ± 1.81, 8.78 ± 1.80 and 13.46 ± 1.88, respectively), suggesting that cymiazole hydrochloride has genotoxic potential.  相似文献
10.
Wet weight, dry weight and water contents of emerging honeybees (Apis mellifera L. [Hymenoptera: Apidae]) infested with the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor (Anderson) (Acari: Varroidae) were all negatively correlated with increasing numbers of mites. It was estimated that for every female mite present during the bees' development, the host would lose three percent of its body water. Parasitised bees also emerged with lower head and abdomen concentrations of protein and with lower abdominal carbohydrate concentrations. Lipid concentrations were not detectably affected by V. destructor infestation. The losses of metabolic reserves were not, however, judged to be serious enough to be directly responsible for the high bee mortality and ultimate colony collapse that are associated with the arrival of Varroa in a hive. Some 8.5% of the emerging bees exhibited morphological deformities and deformity was positively correlated with increasing numbers of mites in brood cells. Deformed bees were, however, found in all categories of parasitosis, suggesting that other factors, such as infectious agents, may be involved. Mites that fed on either live or dead U14C- labelled bees acquired the label within 24 h and it was calculated that an adult female mite consumes 0.67 l haemolymph 24 h–1. It was also demonstrated that 14C was transmitted to a previously non-radio-labelled bee when a mite that had been feeding on a labelled bee changed hosts. The level of transfer was above that which could have arisen through contamination of the mites' mouthparts and supports the suggestion that Varroa is an important vector of pathogens such as viruses.  相似文献
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