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长江中游浅水湖泊水生植物氮磷含量与水柱营养的关系   总被引:18,自引:1,他引:17  
水生植物组织内氮和磷(N和P)含量受到水体营养状况和植物生长状况影响。对长江中游江汉湖群不同营养水平湖泊中大型水生植物的N和P含量3个季度的研究表明,在不同生活型水生植物中,沉水植物主要分布在中营养到中富营养湖泊中,在富营养湖泊均无分布,浮叶和挺水植物在不同营养类型湖泊的沿岸带均有分布。N和P含量以沉水植物最高,浮叶植物次之,挺水植物最低。水生植物的N和P含量都达到或超过生长所需最低N和P阈值,代表性浮叶植物和沉水植物的N和P含量随着湖泊营养水平提高呈现规律性变化。湖泊5种常见的水生植物N和P含量与水柱中不同种类N和P浓度具有季节性相关:菱(TrapabispinosaRoxb.)春夏季P含量都与TP(总磷)和TDP(总溶解磷)明显相关,春季N含量与NH4—N(氨氮)明显相关;春季黄丝草(PotamogetonmaackianusA.Benn.)的P含量与TP明显相关,夏季与TDP明显相关,春季和夏季黄丝草和穗花狐尾藻(MyriophyllumspicatumL.)的N含量与TN(总氮)和TDN(总溶解氮)显著正相关,秋季成负相关;夏季芦苇(PhragmitescommunisTrin.)P含量与TP和TDP显著相关;春季芦苇和香蒲(TyphaorientalisPresl.)N含量与NH4N和NO2N(亚硝态氮)显著相关。  相似文献
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The food webs of rocky infra-littoral ecosystems in the Mediterranean have been little studied. In this investigation stable isotopes and dietary data were compared in an attempt to describe features of the food webs concerned. δ13C and δ15N were determined for plants, invertebrates and fishes from the Bay of Calvi, Corsica. Dietary data were derived from the literature. δ13C of plants ranged from –8.59‰ to –33.74‰, of benthic invertebrates from –17.0‰ to –20.52‰, of planktonic invertebrates from –20.08‰ to –22.34‰ and of fishes from –16.27‰ to –19.59‰. δ15N was generally greater at higher trophic levels. δ15N of plants was 0.95–2.92‰, of benthic invertebrates 1.69–6.54‰, of planktonic invertebrates 3.51–6.82‰ and of fishes 4.63–9.77‰. 13C enrichment tended to be associated with benthic food chains and 13C depletion with planktonic chains. Stable-isotope data suggested more varied diets for many species than implied by gut-contents data. Omnivory and trophic plasticity were widespread, and many consumers fed lower down the food chain than previous studies had suggested. Both stable-isotope and gut-contents analysis resolved differences between fishes feeding on planktonic and benthic prey and indicated that the herbivorous fish Sarpa salpa fed on a diet substantially different from that of other fishes. Zooplankton were important in the diets of several consumers (both primary and secondary), as was plankton derived detritus. One species of fish previously identified as planktivorous was shown to feed largely on benthic organisms, whilst several species of benthic invertebrates may feed on plankton-derived detritus. Although herbivores seemed to obtain most of their C from macroalgae, δ15N data suggested that many of these animals supplemented their intake of N, although gut-contents analysis did not provide evidence for such uptake. The isotopic data have elucidated several features of the food web which we would not otherwise have detected. Received: 26 April 1999 / Accepted: 24 September 1999  相似文献
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Concern is growing about the consequences of biodiversity loss for ecosystem functioning, for the provision of ecosystem services, and for human well being. Experimental evidence for a relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem process rates is compelling, but the issue remains contentious. Here, we present the first rigorous quantitative assessment of this relationship through meta-analysis of experimental work spanning 50 years to June 2004. We analysed 446 measures of biodiversity effects (252 in grasslands), 319 of which involved primary producer manipulations or measurements. Our analyses show that: biodiversity effects are weaker if biodiversity manipulations are less well controlled; effects of biodiversity change on processes are weaker at the ecosystem compared with the community level and are negative at the population level; productivity-related effects decline with increasing number of trophic links between those elements manipulated and those measured; biodiversity effects on stability measures ('insurance' effects) are not stronger than biodiversity effects on performance measures. For those ecosystem services which could be assessed here, there is clear evidence that biodiversity has positive effects on most. Whilst such patterns should be further confirmed, a precautionary approach to biodiversity management would seem prudent in the meantime.  相似文献
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Lake Zwemlust, a small highly eutrophic lake, was biomanipulated without reducing the external nutrient loading, and the effects were studied for four years. In this paper we pay special attention to the shifts in relative distribution of nitrogen and phosphorus in the different trophic levels and to the changes in growth limitation of the autotrophs.Despite of the high external nutrient loads to the lake (ca 2.4 g P m–2 y–1 and 9.6 g N m–2 y–1), the effects of biomanipulation on the lake ecosystem were pronounced. Before biomanipulation no submerged vegetation was present in the lake and P and N were stored in the phytoplankton (44% N, 47% P), fish (33% N, 9% P) and in dissolved forms (23% N, 44% P). P and N contents in sediments were not determined. In the spring and summer following the biomanipulation (1987), zooplankton grazing controlled the phytoplankton biomass and about 90% of N and P were present in dissolved form in the water. From 1988 onwards submerged macrophyte stands continue to thrive, reducing the ammonium and nitrate concentrations in the water below detection levels. In July 1989 storage of N and P in the macrophytes reached 86% and 80%, respectively. Elodea nuttallii (Planchon) St.John, the dominant species in 1988 and 1989, acted as sink both for N and P during spring and early summer, withdrawing up to ca 60% of its N and P content from the sediment. At the end of the year only part of the N and P from the decayed macrophytes (ca 30% of N and 60% of P) was recovered in the water phase of the ecosystem (chiefly in dissolved forms). The rest remained in the sediment, although some N may have been released from the lake by denitrification.In summer 1990 only 30% of the N and P was found in the macrophytes (dominant species Ceratophyllum demersum L.), while ca 30% of N and P was again stored in phytoplankton and fish.  相似文献
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肇庆星湖浮游植物状况及其富营养化评价   总被引:13,自引:0,他引:13       下载免费PDF全文
研究了 1 996年 4月至 1 997年 7月肇庆星湖 5个子湖泊浮游植物种类和数量变化。在 1 996年 4月至 1 997年 7月 6次采样中 ,共鉴定出浮游植物 82种 ,其中绿藻门 37种 ,其次为硅藻和蓝藻门 ,优势种有鼓藻、栅藻、衣藻、席藻、直链藻、多甲藻和裸藻等。大多数采样点年平均浮游植物密度为 1 0 4 个 /L至 1 0 5个 /L,整个湖泊年平均密度为 4.2 8× 1 0 5个 /L。星湖各子湖泊全年的总氮、总磷含量分别低于 1 mg/L和 0 .1 mg/L ,以叶绿素 a、总氮、总磷、氨氮、COD和 BOD为参数的营养状态指数 (TLI) ,除波海湖外均小于 50。根据浮游植物种类和密度及综合营养状态指数评价结果 ,星湖的富营养化状况属于中营养化至富营养化之间 ,其中波海湖已达到富营养化水平 ,5个湖泊的富营养化程度由高至低依次为 :波海湖、仙女湖、里湖、青莲湖、中心湖。  相似文献
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太平湖水库的浮游藻类与营养型评价   总被引:7,自引:1,他引:6  
研究了太平湖水库的浮游藻类与营养类型。共发现藻类175种。绿藻门的种类最多(87种),占种类总数的50%。硅藻和蓝藻次之(分别为34和33种),各占19.4%和18.8%。其它5门藻合计21种,仅占种类总数的11.8%。根据营养型分析结果,太平湖目前水质优良,属中营养型水体;但是藻类的优势种类和总氮含量两项指标已达富营养水平,而且微囊藻(Microcystis)水体较多出现,表明该水体已有向富营养化发展的趋势。含磷量较低(总磷0.012mg/L)是浮游藻类进一步大量繁殖的限制因子。为防止水质恶化,除了应控制含氮化合物的污染外,限制磷的输入尤为重要。  相似文献
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