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Molecular characters are analysed on their own and in combination with morphological data to examine the phylogenetic relationships of the basal lineages of Hymenoptera ('Symphyta'). This study covers 47 sawfly genera and nine apocritan families and includes molecular sequences from five genes − 12S, 16S, 18S and 28S ribosomal genes and cytochrome oxidase 1 − as well as 343 morphological characters. A robust-choice sensitivity analysis is performed with the data. First, the simultaneous analysis is repeated three times, each time employing a different step matrix for weighting the transformations of the molecular characters. Then, the results of all three simultaneous analyses are summarized in a strict consensus in order to avoid basing the conclusions on a narrow set of assumptions. This methodology is discussed in the paper. The relationships among superfamilies largely confirm previous hypotheses, being (Xyeloidea (Tenthredinoidea s.l. (Pamphilioidea (Cephoidea (Siricoidea (Xiphydrioidea (Orussoidea Apocrita))))))), where Siricoidea is understood as Siricidae+Anaxyelidae. However, the relationships within Tenthredinoidea s.s. proposed here are novel: ({Argidae Pergidae}[ Athalia {(Diprionidae Cimbicidae) Tenthredinidae minus Athalia }]).  © 2003 The Linnean Society of London . Biological Journal of the Linnean Society , 2003, 79, 245–275.  相似文献
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记述采自中国海南省的叶蜂7属8种,其中分附顺角叶蜂Tenthredo malimilova Wei,2004和台湾钩瓣叶蜂Macrophya formosana Rohwer,1916是海南省新记录,华氏狭背叶蜂Ametastegia huai Wei et Nie,2002的雌虫为首次描述。记述叶蜂科平背叶蜂亚科1新种——黑跗蔡氏叶蜂Caiina nigritarsis Wei,sp.nov.。  相似文献
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本文在科级阶元水平分析了叶蜂总科的地理分布特征。叶蜂总科在科、亚科和族级水平上可分为3种,9种和16种分布型。在各级水平上,全北界分布型均占有绝对优势,其中东亚地区中南部是主要分布中心。文中还简要阐述了世界膜翅目广腰类群的分布特性;提出了一个简明实用的“类元分布指数It”,用于表示特定地区某一或全部生物类群的各级阶元的分布数量与世界已知阶元总数之比值。此指数稍作修改提出一个类群起源可能性指数Io,用于表示某一类群在一特定区域起源的可能性大小。  相似文献
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本文系统分析了叶蜂总科广布属的地理分布特性。叶蜂总科广布属被分为12个主要的分布类型,其中全北界分布型69属,可再分为6种次类型。在各分布型下列举了全部具有该类分布特征的叶蜂总科属名,并提出了一些有关起源与扩散的设想和推论。在广布型属的地理分布研究基础上,对各大生物地理界之间的关系也提出了一些看法。  相似文献
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本文系统分析了各大动物地理界叶蜂总科特有属现象、特有属间亲缘关系及其分布,并探讨了其起源与传播途径。叶蜂总科在世界各大动物地理界的分布格局为:一个东亚主要分布和分化中心,4个次级分化中心:非洲中部、南美中偏西北部、北美、地中海地区。各个次级中心均与主要中心具有相当密切的联系。北美的特有属集中分布现象不显著。叶蜂总科的起源地区可能位于东亚中南部或其附近。非洲界和新热带界分布的叶蜂总科属数比较少,但特有属比例很高,说明其隔离分化程度较大。新北亚界和西古北区分布的叶蜂总科属数较多,但特有率较低,表明隔离分化程度较小。东方界的叶蜂区系既贫乏且特化程度很低,所分布的属除个别特有属外均与东亚区共有,可能是由东亚区系向南衰减弱化而成。澳洲界处于叶蜂总科区系的外缘,区系成分十分贫乏。  相似文献
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Macrophya opacifrontalis Li,Lei Wei,sp.nov.,M.pseudofemorata Li,Wang, Wei,sp.nov.,and M.huangi Li Wei,sp.nov.of the sanguinolenta-gxoup of Macrophya(Hymenoptera:Tenthredinidae) from China are described.M.opacifrontalis and M.pseudofemorata is belong to the tongi-subgroup,whereas M.huangi belongs to the depressinasubgroup.The division of the tongi and depressina subgroups and species inside are briefly discussed.Keys to all known species of the tongi and depressina-subgroups from China are provided respectively.  相似文献
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Four new species of the sanguinolenta-group of the genus Macrophya from China are described, namely M. cheni sp. nov., M. yichangensis sp. nov., M. elegansoma sp. nov., and M. reni sp. nov. The species M. cheni sp. nov. and M. yichangensis sp. nov. belong to the koreana-subgroup, while M. elegansoma sp. nov. and M. reni sp. nov. belong to the sanguinolenta-subgroup. The division of the koreana and sanguinolenta-subgroups are briefly discussed. Keys to all known species of the koreana and sanguinolenta-subgroups from China are provided, respectively. The type specimens of new species are deposited in the Insect Collection of Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha, Hunan, China.  相似文献
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The Macrophya regia group is reviewed and five species are recognized from China, among them two new species, M. acutiserrula Li, Liu & Wei sp. nov. and M. frontalis Li, Liu & Zhu sp. nov., and three known species, M. regia Forsius 1930 , M. maculoclypeatina Wei et al. 2003, and M. xiaoi Wei et al. 2003. A key to the Chinese species of the Macrophya regia group are provided.  相似文献
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