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塔克拉玛干沙漠南缘柽柳和胡杨水势季节变化研究   总被引:14,自引:0,他引:14       下载免费PDF全文
对塔克拉玛干沙漠南缘的柽柳和胡杨生长周期内的清晨水势和水势日变化的连续野外测定表明,两种植物在整个生长期内均未出现明显的水分亏缺.清晨水势的季节变化幅度不大,正午水势有不同程度的降低;一次性人工灌溉对植物水分状况没有明显影响.采伐利用方式不影响植物的水分状况.地下水是柽柳和胡杨生存与生长的先决条件.维持该区域地下水位的基本稳定是保证该区域柽柳和胡杨恢复重建的重要前提.  相似文献
2.
自然状况下头状沙拐枣对水分条件变化的响应   总被引:11,自引:0,他引:11       下载免费PDF全文
 对塔克拉玛干沙漠南缘沙漠-绿洲过渡带前沿人工植被头状沙拐枣(Calligonum caput-medusae)水分关系的研究表明:头状沙拐枣在生长季节中一直保持着正的膨压,水分亏缺的发展并不严重,植被所受水分胁迫在正常范围内,因而在现存条件下干旱引起的水分胁迫不足以威胁植被的存在。在生长进程中,随着环境胁迫的加剧,头状沙拐枣依然维持了比较高的水势和渗透势,实验结果也显示植株体内可溶性物质(NsDM)的累积程度并没有升高,因而其生理过程仍然在比较宽松的环境中进行。相对含水量(RWCp)在生长季节一直保持很高的水平,这对植株保持体内水分防止水分过度损失有利。头状沙拐枣在干旱胁迫下表现出的这些生理特点说明,植物对干旱环境的生理适应类型属于抵抗型。在叶水平上植株对干旱胁迫的水分生理适应主要表现为质外体水比例的增高,细胞壁弹性的增加,持续较高的相对含水量(RWCp)以及灌水后RWCp和枝条水分比值(WCsat)的增加上。夏季的引洪灌溉有助于头状沙拐枣水分状况的恢复,并很可能是植被免于严重水分胁迫的原因之一。  相似文献
3.
塔南绿洲生态系统持续发展近期优化模式   总被引:5,自引:1,他引:4  
基于对塔克拉玛干沙漠南缘各绿洲水资源的时空分布特征和目前各绿洲灌溉渠系利用系数的分析,通过野外对典型防护林防风效益的监测和风洞模拟实验,以及在塔克拉玛干沙漠南缘策勒绿洲进行了15年的沙漠化土地综合治理试验示范研究经验,提出了近期内塔克拉玛干沙漠南缘绿洲生态系统持续发展系列优化模式:塔克拉玛干沙漠南缘适度绿洲优化模式、塔克拉玛干沙漠南缘绿防护林结构优化模式、塔克拉玛干沙漠南缘荒漠化土地综合整治优化模  相似文献
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Little is known of the mechanisms employed by woody plants to acquire key resources such as water and nutrients in hyperarid environments. For phreatophytic plants, deep roots are necessary to access the water table, but given that most nutrients in many desert ecosystems are stored in the upper soil layers, viable shallow roots may be equally necessary for nutrient uptake. We sought to better understand the interaction between water and nutrient uptake from soil horizons differing in the relative abundance of these resources. To this end, we monitored plant water and nutrient status before and after applying flood irrigation to four phreatophytic perennial plant species in the remote hyperarid Taklamakan desert in western China. Sap flow in the roots of five plants of the perennial desert species Alhagi sparsifolia Shap., Karelina caspica (Pall.) Less., Calligonum caput medusea Schrenk, and Eleagnus angustifolia Hill. was monitored using the heat ratio method (HRM). Additionally we measured predawn and midday water potential, foliar nitrate reductase activity (NRA), xylem sap nutrient concentration and the concentration of total solutes in the leaves before, 12 and 96 h after flooding to investigate possible short-term physiological effects on water and nutrient status. Rates of sap flow measured during the day and at night in the absence of transpiration did not change after flooding. Moderately high rates of sap flow (HRM heat pulse velocity, 5–25 cm h−1) detected during the day in soils that had a near zero water content at the surface indicated that all species had contact to groundwater. There was no evidence from sap flow data that plants had utilised flood water to increase maximum rates of transpiration under similar climatic conditions, and there was no evidence of a process to improve the efficiency of water or nutrient uptake, such as hydraulic redistribution (i.e. the passive movement of water from moist soil to very dry soil via roots). Measurements of plant water status, xylem sap nutrient status, foliar NRA and the concentration of osmotically active substances were also unaffected by flood irrigation. Our results clearly show that groundwater acts as the major source of water and nutrients for these plants. The inability of plants to utilise abundant surface soil–water or newly available nutrients following irrigation was attributed to the absence of fine roots in the topsoil layer.  相似文献
5.
The study aimed at establishing the role of two possible water sources (inundation, ground water) for the water supply to the perennial plant species Alhagi sparsifolia, Calligonum caput-medusae, Populus euphratica and Tamarix ramosissima growing in the transition zone between a river oasis and the open desert at the southern fringe of the Taklamakan desert (Xinjiang province, NW China). The basic hypothesis was that inundations, which normally occur in summer when rivers from a nearby mountain range carry high water, contribute significantly to the plants’ water supply. When, in the first summer, inundations did not occur, four sites, each of which covered by a relatively dense stand of one species, were artificially flooded. Soil and plant water relations as well as meteorological variables were measured during two growing seasons. Water use efficiency of production (WUEP) was calculated by relating biomass production, which was determined using allometric regressions, to water use.The effects of artificial flooding on the plant water relations were negligible. Water use was relatively high, especially in the A. sparsifolia and the P. euphratica stands and in a dense stand of T. ramosissima (up to approx. 500 kgH2O m−2 year−1). Using the total above-ground biomass in the calculation, WUEP was highest in C. caput-medusae and P. euphratica, and lowest, in A. sparsifolia. From soil and plant water relations, and against the background of the climate and the productivity of the vegetation, it is concluded that all perennial plants in the transition zone between oases and desert in that region must have sufficient access to ground water to ensure long-term survival. Management of ground water such that it remains continuously accessible to the perennial plants is a prerequisite for the conservation and sustainable use of the vegetation in the transition zone.  相似文献
6.
塔克拉玛干沙漠南缘3种果树幼苗光合及抗逆性研究   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
于2010年7~8月份,以塔克拉玛干沙漠南缘绿洲-荒漠过渡带人工种植的桑树(Morus albaL.)、沙枣(Elaeagnus angustifoliaL.)和杏树(Prunus armeniacaL.)幼苗为材料,研究了它们在相同生境条件下光合响应特征、水势、脯氨酸和可溶性糖含量等生理指标的变化,并用隶属函数值法对3种果树幼苗的抗旱性进行综合评价。结果表明:(1)3种果树幼苗光响应曲线具有相同的变化规律,当光合有效辐射(PAR)在0~200μmol.m-2.s-1之间变化时,净光合速率(A)随着PAR的增大呈直线增大,当PAR>200μmol.m-2.s-1时,A随PAR的变化呈二次曲线变化;(2)3种果树幼苗的光响应参数最大光合速率(Amax)、曲角(K)、表观量子效率(φ)、暗呼吸速率(Rday)、光饱和点(LSP)、光补偿点(LCP)以及光合色素的变化趋势并不完全一致,其中桑树具有最大的Amax、φ、Rday和叶绿素含量,而杏树的LSP最高,LCP最低,因此桑树具有最大的光能利用效率,而杏树能更有效地利用强光进行光合作用;(3)3种果树幼苗脯氨酸(Pro)、可溶性糖以及丙二醛(MDA)含量,除沙枣和杏树之间可溶性糖含量差异不显著外,其他指标含量差异在3种果树之间均达到显著水平(P<0.05);(4)在本研究期间3种果树的抗逆性表现为沙枣>桑树>杏树。研究发现,塔克拉玛干沙漠南缘绿洲-荒漠过渡带的3种果树幼苗光响应曲线变化趋势基本一致,体现了植物对环境条件适应的一致性,但是各个生理指标的变化趋势并不完全一致,这可能是由于植物种对环境条件的适应差异所导致。  相似文献
7.
为了研究玉米对不同荒漠化环境的适应性,以塔克拉玛干沙漠南缘策勒绿洲外围不同荒漠化程度下生长的玉米为试验材料,大田试验为手段,布置3个胁迫水平(轻度荒漠化、中度荒漠化、重度荒漠化),研究了玉米的土壤含水率、植株高度、生物量分配、脯氨酸(Proline)、丙二醛(MDA)、可溶性糖(Sugar)、叶绿素(Chl)、叶绿素荧光参数、比叶面积(SLA)等在不同胁迫梯度下的变化特征。结果显示:随着荒漠化程度的加剧,玉米生物量、脯氨酸、丙二醛、叶绿素、类胡萝卜素、Chl a/b、叶绿素荧光参数都有不同幅度的下降;中度荒漠化可溶性糖含量最低,重度最高,轻度介于两者之间;Car/Chl、比叶面积和地下生物量占总生物量的比重都随荒漠化程度的加剧,呈增加趋势。结果表明,荒漠化环境明显对玉米的生长产生了抑制作用;随着荒漠化程度的加剧,玉米植株的光合色素含量降低,PSⅡ受到影响,从而影响植株的光合作用,使玉米物质的积累受到影响;玉米自身通过在营养器官分配更多的能量和积累调控物质,并且在形态结构上也会发生某些改变以适应更恶劣的环境。随着胁迫程度的加剧,对其生长抑制愈严重。  相似文献
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