首页 | 本学科首页   官方微博 | 高级检索  
文章检索
  按 检索   检索词:      
出版年份:   被引次数:   他引次数: 提示:输入*表示无穷大
  收费全文   18篇
  完全免费   3篇
  2018年   2篇
  2016年   2篇
  2015年   1篇
  2014年   2篇
  2009年   2篇
  2006年   1篇
  2003年   4篇
  2002年   1篇
  2001年   2篇
  2000年   1篇
  1997年   2篇
  1994年   1篇
排序方式: 共有21条查询结果,搜索用时 31 毫秒
1.
Diversity of birch sawfly responses to seasonally atypical diets   总被引:4,自引:0,他引:4  
Most insect herbivores are specialised on a particular plant taxon. To have a better understanding of host shift functions and consequences for insect herbivores, it is essential to gather more information on the effects of variation in host quality on specialists across species and environments. We examined the effects of seasonally atypical food on mortality, developmental time, and final body mass of six sawfly species (Hymenoptera: Symphyta) feeding on the foliage of mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii), whose pooled larval feeding periods form a gradient and cover the growing season. Insect phenology was manipulated so that the larvae of early-season species would feed on atypically mature leaves and mid- or late-season species would feed on atypically young leaves of their major host plant. Mortality increased dramatically for all species when the larval feeding schedule was advanced or delayed. This indicates a high degree of specialisation not only on a particular host but also to its phenological phases. The main cause of mortality on novel food was a rejection of the diet by the young larvae and their subsequent starvation. An interesting observation was that late-season species showed this response on nutritious young foliage. The effects of seasonally atypical diets on larval development and growth were species-specific and milder than the effects on mortality. Interestingly, for those individuals that accepted it, atypical food seemed to be most beneficial for species appearing at both ends of the seasonal gradient, which might be related to a wider exposure to variable food quality in natural conditions compared with other species. The diversity of responses to atypical food among closely related herbivore species with overlapping feeding periods on the same host plant is the most crucial finding of this study.  相似文献
2.
Molecular characters are analysed on their own and in combination with morphological data to examine the phylogenetic relationships of the basal lineages of Hymenoptera ('Symphyta'). This study covers 47 sawfly genera and nine apocritan families and includes molecular sequences from five genes − 12S, 16S, 18S and 28S ribosomal genes and cytochrome oxidase 1 − as well as 343 morphological characters. A robust-choice sensitivity analysis is performed with the data. First, the simultaneous analysis is repeated three times, each time employing a different step matrix for weighting the transformations of the molecular characters. Then, the results of all three simultaneous analyses are summarized in a strict consensus in order to avoid basing the conclusions on a narrow set of assumptions. This methodology is discussed in the paper. The relationships among superfamilies largely confirm previous hypotheses, being (Xyeloidea (Tenthredinoidea s.l. (Pamphilioidea (Cephoidea (Siricoidea (Xiphydrioidea (Orussoidea Apocrita))))))), where Siricoidea is understood as Siricidae+Anaxyelidae. However, the relationships within Tenthredinoidea s.s. proposed here are novel: ({Argidae Pergidae}[ Athalia {(Diprionidae Cimbicidae) Tenthredinidae minus Athalia }]).  © 2003 The Linnean Society of London . Biological Journal of the Linnean Society , 2003, 79, 245–275.  相似文献
3.
In a previous study of the phylogeny of basal Hymenoptera, Vilhelmsen (2001; Zool. J. Linn. Soc . 131 : 393–442) compiled an extensive morphological data matrix for a phylogenetic analysis of basal Hymenoptera, comprising 38 hymenopteran genera. In this study, his characters are revised. This results in a cladogram whose relationships largely agree with those proposed by Vilhelmsen, except that the relationships at the base of the Hymenoptera are unresolved. The revised data matrix is expanded by 17 sawfly and three apocritan taxa. Moreover, 112 new morphological characters from different parts of the larval and adult morphology are also added to the data matrix, including 82 from a recent study of the terminal abdominal segments of male Hymenoptera. The addition of the new characters leads to Xyelidae, again, being the sister-group of all other Hymenoptera. The relationships among the sawfly families as proposed by Vilhelmsen are confirmed, except that the relationships among Syntexis , Siricidae and Xiphydriidae + Vespina are unresolved and that the monophyly of Apocrita is not convincingly supported. A separate analysis is performed which includes all extant genera of Xyelidae. The internal phylogeny of Xyelidae is determined as (( Macroxyela Megaxyela ) Xyelecia ( Xyela Pleroneura )).  © 2003 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society , 2003, 79 , 209–243.  相似文献
4.
The phenological window of opportunity for early-season birch sawflies   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
Abstract 1. The phenological window of opportunity hypothesis posits that an insect herbivore cannot survive outside a specific leaf age interval of its host plant.
2. Previous studies have shown that mountain birch displays extensive seasonal changes in leaf biochemical characteristics. Young, expanding leaves are full of water and amino acids but they also contain large amounts of protein-precipitating gallotannins as well as flavonoid-glycosides. Concentrations of these compounds decline during leaf growth whereas concentrations of sugars and proanthocyanidins and leaf toughness increase.
3. Adult birch sawflies hatch in early summer and oviposit on growing leaves, which compels larvae to feed on leaves that are already well developed. The purpose of this study was to test whether leaves that were younger and biochemically different from the leaves available under natural conditions are within the phenological window of opportunity for the larvae of two early-season birch sawfly species, Amauronematus amplus Konow and Pristiphora alpestris (Konow).
4. Amauronematus amplus larvae survived better and developed faster, and P. alpestris larvae developed faster and became bigger, on atypically young leaves compared with larvae reared on leaves encountered normally. Therefore, these species can exploit the putative nutritional superiority of very young leaves, which probably outweighs the potential impact of the new set of secondary metabolites offered to them. In conclusion, young leaves that are consumed rarely by sawfly larvae are within their phenological window of opportunity, even though the timing of sawfly life cycles constrains their utilisation.  相似文献
5.
6.
记述了叶蜂科采自甘肃的3个新种:Tenthredo(Tenthredo)sinotemula sp.nov.,Tenthredo(Tenthredella)labrangensis sp.nov.和Tenthredo(Tenthredella)sinosimplex sp.nov.;采白青海的3个新种:Tenthredo(Tenthredella)rolleri sp.nov.,Tenthredo(Tenthredella)qinghaiensis sp.nov.和Tenthredo(Tenthredella)yunningsiensis sp.nov.  相似文献
7.
8.
The European pine sawfly, Neodiprion sertifer (Geoffroy) (Hymenoptera: Diprionidae), is a widespread and economically important forest insect. The sex pheromone communication system of this species has been previously investigated in North America, Japan and Europe, with the acetate or propionate of the alcohol (2S,3S,7S)-3,7-dimethyl-2-pentadecanol (diprionol) shown to be the main pheromone component. In some locations, male attraction either increased or decreased by the addition of the (2S,3R,7R)-diprionyl acetate isomer. However, these studies were made with different batches of synthetic pheromones, with different types of traps and according to different procedures, so the observed differences might not reflect true geographic variation. Here we investigate the geographic pattern of male sawfly response by using identical chemicals, traps and experimental procedures at eight field sites ranging from Japan in the east to Canada in the west. We found an increased inhibitory effect of the (2S,3R,7R)-isomer from Japan and Siberia to Europe. At the eastern sites, increasing amounts of the (2S,3R,7R)-isomer up to and equal to the amount of the (2S,3S,7S )-isomer, did not influence the trap catch, whereas at sites in Europe, as little as 1% of the (2S,3R,7R)-isomer almost completely inhibited the attraction. The response of the North American population was intermediate. The only site in which the (2S,3R,7R)-isomer was essential for the attraction of males was in Siberia. A similar pattern was found for the (2S,3R,7S)-isomer. Both the acetate and the propionate form of the (2S,3S,7S)-isomer were attractive by themselves in Japan, Europe and North America, and neither the (2S,3R,7S)-isomer nor the (2S,3R,7R)-isomer alone were attractive, in the acetate or propionate form. We discuss the significance of our findings for the development of more efficient monitoring schemes and for the causes of population divergence and speciation in the European pine sawfly.  相似文献
9.
10.
设为首页 | 免责声明 | 关于勤云 | 加入收藏

Copyright©北京勤云科技发展有限公司  京ICP备09084417号