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放牧对贝加尔针茅草原群落植物多样性和生产力的影响   总被引:24,自引:3,他引:21  
研究了不同放牧强度对贝加尔针茅草原群落植物多样性和生产力的影响。结果表明,在牧压梯度上,不同的植物表现出不同的生态适应对策,贝加尔针茅种群随着牧压的增加,种群株丛破碎化、小型化,羊草耐牧性较强,在中牧阶段生产力最高。群落初级生产力随着放牧强度的增加逐渐下降。较大的放牧压力下,群落中适口性差、耐牧的杂类草植物渐趋增加。而在更大的放牧压力下,群落逐步被耐牧的小丛生禾草、旱生小苔草、小灌木和灌木所替代。草地群落的稳定性随着放牧强度增加逐渐降低。放牧干扰对群落植物多样性和生产力及其稳定性的影响是不同步的,不对称的。植物群落初级生产力对放牧干扰的响应更迅速,变化更剧烈。  相似文献
2.
基于Biolog-ECO技术,研究了贝加尔针茅草原在自由放牧、刈割和围封3种不同利用方式下土壤微生物群落功能多样性变化。结果表明:不同的利用方式能显著改变土壤微生物群落代谢活性,反映微生物活性的平均颜色变化率表现为围封>自由放牧>刈割,围封时土壤微生物群落代谢活性最高;不同的利用方式改变了土壤微生物群落多样性指数,自由放牧土壤微生物群落丰富度指数、均匀度指数和优势度指数均最高,围封次之,刈割最低。主成分分析结果表明:在自由放牧和刈割2种利用方式下土壤微生物群落碳源利用模式及代谢功能相似,而围封土壤微生物群落具有不同的碳源利用模式和代谢功能;糖类、氨基酸类和代谢中间产物及次生代谢物为土壤微生物利用的主要碳源。不同的利用方式改变了贝加尔针茅草原土壤微生物群落功能多样性。  相似文献
3.
In 1997, we conducted a vegetation survey in three semi-arid natural grasslands (steppes) with different livestock grazing intensities in Southwest Heilongjiang Province, China, The dominant grassland species was the grass Stipa baicalensis Roshev. Grasslands with light, intermediate, and heavy grazing intensities were located 10, 5, and 2 km from a village, respectively. Villagers use the steppe to raise cattle, horses, sheep, and goats. Each of the three grasslands was surveyed by placing 100 quadrats (50 cm×50 cm) along a 50 m line transect. Each quadrat was divided into four equal areas (25 cm×25 cm; S-quadrats) and all plant species occurring in each of these smaller areas were identified and recorded. These data were summarized into frequency distributions and the percentage of S-quadrats containing a given species and the variance of each species were estimated. The power law was applied to these estimates. The power law was used to evaluate the spatial heterogeneity and frequency of occurrence for each species in the grassland community. The lightly grazed grassland exhibited high spatial heterogeneity (caused by large plant size), the highest species diversity, and a high occurrence of S. baicalensis. In contrast, the heavily grazed grassland exhibited high spatial heterogeneity (caused by patchy populations of small plant size), low species diversity, and a low occurrence of S. baicalensis. We judged that the heavily grazed grassland was overgrazed and exclusion of livestock from the degraded areas is necessary for recovery.  相似文献
4.
In 1997, we conducted a vegetation survey in three semi-arid natural grasslands (steppes) withdifferent livestock grazing intensities in Southwest Heilongjiang Province, China. The dominant grasslandspecies was the grass Stipa baicalensis Roshev. Grasslands with light, intermediate, and heavy grazingintensities were located 10, 5, and 2 km from a village, respectively. Villagers use the steppe to raise cattle,horses, sheep, and goats. Each of the three grasslands was surveyed by placing 100 quadrats (50 cm×50 cm)along a 50 m line transect. Each quadrat was divided into four equal areas (25 cm×25 cm; S-quadrats) and allplant species occurring in each of these smaller areas were identified and recorded. These data were summa-rized into frequency distributions and the percentage of S-quadrats containing a given species and thevariance of each species were estimated. The power law was applied to these estimates. The power law wasused to evaluate the spatial heterogeneity and frequency of occurrence for each species in the grasslandcommunity. The lightly grazed grassland exhibited high spatial heterogeneity (caused by large plant size),the highest species diversity, and a high occurrence of S. baicalensis. In contrast, the heavily grazedgrassland exhibited high spatial heterogeneity (caused by patchy populations of small plant size), lowspecies diversity, and a low occurrence of S. baicalensis. We judged that the heavily grazed grassland wasovergrazed and exclusion of livestock from the degraded areas is necessary for recovery.  相似文献
5.
以内蒙古草原3种针茅属植物为材料,常规压片法制片后观察记录染色体数,并进行核型分析。实验结果表明: 贝加尔针茅、大针茅和克氏针茅细胞染色体数均为2n=44,属于2A核型,为二倍体。在3种针茅的染色体中,中部着丝粒染色体占大多数平均为62.1%,其次近中部着丝粒染色体平均为28.9%,近端部着丝粒染色体较少约为9.0%。在3种针茅的第五号染色体上均有随体,表明起源于同一祖先。虽然染色体核型均属于较对称型,但是染色体不对称系数随着3种针茅分布生境的干旱程度的增加而逐渐增加,可能是长期适应与进化的结果。  相似文献
6.
以内蒙古呼伦贝尔草甸草原围封草地和放牧草地为实验样地,通过对两种草地类型中狼针草(Stipa baicalensis)的光合特性、水分关系、植物渗透调节等生理生态学特性测定分析,比较研究放牧干扰对狼针草的影响.结果表明:在放牧干扰下,狼针草通过增强核酮糖二磷酸羧化酶(RUBPCase)活性、叶绿素含量、改变电子流的方向和速率、增强光系统Ⅱ (PSⅡ)活性(p<0.05),促进同化物的累积和植物的补偿生长,应对放牧干扰的影响.放牧干扰下狼针草的光合速率日变化曲线呈单峰型,而围封草地中呈“双峰型”,出现“午休”现象,正午RuBPCase的羧化能力下降是造成围封草地狼针草光合“午休”的非气孔因素之一,而磷元素的缺失可能是导致二磷酸核酮糖羧化酶(Rubisco)活性下降的原因.在光合能量分配方面,两种样地狼针草的PSⅡ最大光化学量子产量(Fv/Fm)均出现光抑制现象.放牧草地中狼针草对光照增强较为敏感,Fv/ Fm值下降趋势明显p<0.05).和围封样地相比,放牧样地的狼针草光化学猝灭(qP)值升高,而非光化学猝灭(NPQ)值降低p<0.05),分配更多的能量于光合反应中心,有利于同化物累积,提高光合能力来适应放牧的影响.在放牧干扰下,狼针草叶片水势与叶片含水量降低,而渗透调节物质可溶性蛋白和可溶性糖含量增加p<0 05),狼针草的蓄水性变弱,需要通过增加体内渗透调节物质,主动降低水势,以保证从土壤中获取足够的水分维持自身生理活性.同时,放牧干扰促进了狼针草对氮元素的吸收利用.放牧样地中狼针草光合氮、磷利用率均与叶比重呈负相关关系.  相似文献
7.
 采用凋落物分解袋法, 研究了呼伦贝尔草甸草原主要优势种贝加尔针茅(Stipa baicalensis)根系组织和地上部分凋落物分解的季节动态以及凋落物的放置位置(置于地表和15 cm土壤表层)对分解的影响。结果表明, 置于表层土壤中的根系组织和地上部分凋落物的分解速率比置于地表的快, 但是根系组织在两个放置位置分解的差异不显著。无论置于地表还是置于表层土壤中, 地上部分凋落物的分解均快于根系组织的凋落物分解。在分解过程中, 凋落物碳(C)损失的季节变化模式与重量损
失相似; 而氮(N)变化模式明显不同, 地上部分凋落物表现为释放—累积—释放, 根系则表现为释放—累积, 并且地上部分或者根系在不同放置位置中N含量变化的差异较小。地上部分和根系组织凋落物的初始化学组成的差异可能是导致其分解过程差异显著的主要原因, 其次的原因才是土壤含水量。因此, 该地区未来环境温度、湿度因子的变化将会显著影响贝加尔针茅地上部分凋落物的分解过程, 而对根系组织凋落物的分解作用较小。  相似文献
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