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Abstract.  Flies belonging to the subfamily Steganinae (Drosophilidae) display unusual zoophilic feeding habits at the adult and/or larval stage. Phortica variegata (Fallén) feeds on tears or eye liquid around the eyes of humans and carnivores. When feeding it is a potential vector of Thelazia callipaeda (Railliet and Henry) eyeworms. Adult and larval stages of this fly may be easily confused with other species belonging to the same genus, and little is known on the biology and ecology of P. variegata . In April–November 2005, a total of 969 P. variegata were collected in an area with a high prevalence of canine thelaziosis. The number of flies collected weekly was then related to climatic and environmental parameters (e.g. temperature, relative humidity and total rainfall) recorded daily at the collection site. The highest number of Phortica were collected during July–August. The sex ratio (number of males : females) rose from ∼ 0.5 during May–July, to ∼ 3.0 in August and 181 during September–October. Distributional data, representing 242 sites at which P. variegata has been collected in Europe, were analysed using a desktop implementation of the genetic algorithm for rule-set prediction (GARP) to model ecological requirements across Europe, as well as in Italy. P. variegata is shown to be mainly active at 20–25 °C and 50–75% RH. The ecological niche model suggests with a high degree of confidence that large areas of Europe are likely to represent suitable habitat for this species, mostly concentrated in central Europe. The results reported here contribute basic knowledge on the ecology and geographical distribution of P. variegata flies, which will be fundamental to gaining a better understanding of their role as vectors of human and animal pathogens.  相似文献
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Six new species of the genus Phortica are described from Yunnan, Southwest China: P. (Alloparadisa) kaibangya n. sp., P. (Ashima) semiannulata n. sp., P. (Ashima) dianmianensis n. sp., P. (Ashima) idiasta n. sp., P. (Ashima) menglian n. sp. and P. (Ashima) zhangyuanae n. sp. The 22 new DNA sequences of the mitochondrial COI gene with BOLD Process ID and GenBank accession numbers are provided for the six new species and six related known species from southern China: P. (Ashima) glabra, Chen & Toda, 2005 P. (Ashima) nudiarista Cheng & Chen, 2008, P. (Ashima) saltiaristula Chen & Wen, 2005, P. (Ashima) spinosa, Chen & Toda, 2005 P. (Ashima) symmetria Chen & Toda, 2005 and P. (Ashima) yiqini Zhu & Chen, 2017. The pairwise interspecific K-2P COI distances among all Chinese species of the subgenera Alloparadisa and Ashima are summarized. An identification key to males of all Chinese species of the subgenera Alloparadisa and Ashima is provided.  相似文献
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The phylogenetic relationships among the East Asian species of the apodemata and sinuata species groups of the genus Amiota were investigated based on DNA sequences of the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (ND2) gene. A total of 23 samples of 12 species were employed as in‐group taxa, and one sample for each of four other Amiota species were used as out‐groups. The results suggested with strong confidence the monophyly of both the apodemata and the sinuata groups, whereas the monophyly of the ‘apodemata group + sinuata group’ cluster was less supported. Based on its geographical distribution, the origin of the sinuata group is supposed to be southern China. Four new species were described from Guangxi and Yunnan, China: Amiota reikae Xu & Chen sp. nov. , Amiota guiensis Xu & Chen sp. nov. , Amiota hesongensis Xu & Chen sp. nov. , and Amiota polytreta Xu & Chen sp. nov. © 2013 The Linnean Society of London  相似文献
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This paper reports on nine Asian species of the genus Paraleucophenga, of which four are new to science: Paraleucophenga brevipenis sp. nov. , Paraleucophenga hirtipenis sp. nov. , Paraleucophenga longiseta sp. nov. , and Paraleucophenga tanydactylia sp. nov. We also report on a new synonym, Paraleucophenga shanyinensis Chen & Toda, 1994 syn. nov. A key to all of the species examined, based on morphological data, is provided, together with a ‘molecular’ key to seven Paraleudophenga species based on DNA sequence data of the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (ND2) gene. The phylogenetic relationships among seven Paraleucophenga species are reconstructed based on DNA sequences of the mitochondrial ND2 gene, using two Leucophenga species as outgroups. © 2009 The Linnean Society of London, Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2009, 155 , 615–629.  相似文献
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The subfamily Steganinae (Diptera, Drosophilidae) includes flies which display zoophilic feeding behaviour in the larval and/or adult stages, some of which act as vectors of Spirurida eyeworms, which infect both carnivores and humans. To date, the taxonomy and phylogeny of the subfamily Steganinae has been studied only superficially and many aspects of their systematics remain unresolved. Thus, the present study aimed to provide a molecular dataset to facilitate the identification and phylogenetic analysis of Steganinae species based on partial ( approximately 700 basepairs) mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) sequences. A total of 134 flies belonging to 13 species and eight genera of Steganinae were subjected to molecular and phylogenetic analyses. The mean nucleotide variation within the Steganinae subfamily was 8.1%, with a variation within genera for which more than one species was examined ranging from 1.6% (in Phortica spp.) to 21.8% (in Amiota spp.). Interspecific pairwise divergence ranged from 1.6% (Phortica variegata vs. Phortica semivirgo) to 24.8% (Cacoxenus indagator vs. Amiota alboguttata) and intraspecific variation ranged from 0% to 1%. Seventy of the 233 amino acids were variable, including 26 parsimony informative sites and 44 singleton sites, with some highly conserved residues identified within the genera Stegana and Amiota. Parsimony and maximum likelihood-based phylogenetic analyses provided strong support for the genus Phortica, phylogenetically distinct from the genus Amiota. Gitona distigma was placed in an unresolved position adjacent to the outgroup taxa, Drosophila yakuba and Drosophila melanogaster. The molecular data reported here represent the first molecular dataset based on cox1 of Steganinae flies and provide a base for further investigations into the evolutionary relationships among this little-studied subfamily.  相似文献
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Three new species of the subgenus Parapenthecia of the genus Apenthecia are reported from the Oriental Region: A. (P.) heterochaeta Chen and Toda, sp. nov. from Indonesia, and A. (P.) hispida Chen and Toda, sp. nov. and A. (P.) litongi Cao and Chen, sp. nov. from south China. Interestingly, the last species lacks a very peculiar character, the swollen or scale‐like orbital setae, which are commonly seen in all other species of the genus Apenthecia. A key to all species of the subgenus Parapenthecia is provided.  相似文献
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Despite the fact that Drosophilidae is a very diverse and well‐studied taxon, the New World genus Rhinoleucophenga is yet poorly understood even in regard to species distribution and morphological variability pattern. In this sense, R. punctulata is a species widely distributed in the Neotropical region. Specimens of R. punctulata were collected from different biomes in Brazil: Pampa, Cerrado and Caatinga sensu strictu, and a southern Amazonian savannah enclave area. Geographical variations in the external body morphology and in the morphology of spermatheca were noticed among the different populations. The hypothesis that each population could be a different species was tested through molecular data. A fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxydase subunit I (COI) gene was sequenced to perform phylogenetic analyses through neighbor‐joining and Bayesian inferences. Pairwise genetic divergences of COI sequences were calculated using DNA barcode premises. The analyzed populations presented different variation levels in both morphology and molecular traits. However, new species were not proposed because the intra‐population nucleotide variations exceeded the inter‐population ones. The noticeable morphological and genetic variations revealed among the four studied populations of R. punctulata in different biomes of Brazil suggest the necessity that morphological, distributional and molecular data at the population level should be integrated into complementary datasets to better understand the biological diversity of Rhinoleucophenga through Neotropical environments.  相似文献
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