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1.
In birds, carotenoid-based plumage coloration is more dependent on physical condition and foraging abilities and less constrained developmentally than is melanin-based coloration. Thus, female mate choice for honest signals should result in more intense sexual selection on carotenoid- than on melanin-based plumage coloration. Using variation in sexual dimorphism as an indirect measure of the intensity of sexual selection, we tested the prediction mat variation in sexual dimorphism is driven more by change in carotenoid-based coloration between males and females dian by change in melanin-based coloration. Examination of historical changes in carotenoid- versus melanin-based pigmentation in 126 extant species of Cardueline finches supported this prediction. We found that carotenoid-derived coloration changed more frequendy among congeners dian melanin-based coloration. In both sexes, increase in carotenoid-based coloration score, but not in melanin-based coloration score, was strongly associated with increase in sexual dichromatism. In addition, sexual dimorphism in carotenoid-based coloration contributed more to overall dichromatism than dimorphism in melanin-based plumage. Our results supported die hypothesis that melanin-based and carotenoid-based coloration have fundamentally different signal content and suggest that combining melanin-based and carotenoid-based coloration in comparative analyses is not appropriate.  相似文献
2.
Protandry and sexual dimorphism in trans-Saharan migratory birds   总被引:5,自引:0,他引:5  
Earlier arrival to reproductive sites of males relative to females(protandry) is widespread among migratory organisms. Diversemechanisms have been proposed that may select for protandry,including competition for limiting resources (e.g., territories)or mates. In species with large variation in male reproductivesuccess, such as polygamous species and those with intense spermcompetition, early arriving males may accrue a fitness advantagebecause they acquire more mates or have larger chances of paternity.Comparative studies of birds have shown that sexual size dimorphism(SSD) is positively associated with the level of polygyny, whereasintense sperm competition is associated with sexual dichromatism(SD). Positive correlations between protandry and SSD or SDcan therefore be expected to exist across avian species. Becauselarge males are predicted to be better able to cope with adverseecological conditions early in the breeding season, selectionfor protandry, in turn, may have a correlated response on SSDamong migratory species breeding in boreal latitudes. Althoughprevious studies of birds have analyzed the association betweenSSD and protandry, none has analyzed SD in relation to protandry.Here we analyze the association between protandry during springmigration, SSD, and SD in 21 trans-Saharan monogamous migratorybird species. The difference in median migration dates betweenfemales and males, reflecting protandry, was positively associatedwith SD but not with SSD. Because dichromatism is positivelyrelated to sperm competition across species, present resultsare consistent with predictions derived from sexual selectionhypotheses for the evolution of protandry mediated by spermcompetition.  相似文献
3.
Several lines of indirect evidence suggest that selection imposedby predators may favor certain combinations of prey colorationand behavior at the expense of other combinations, but thishypothesis has never been tested experimentally. We manipulatedcolor pattern and behavior of pygmy grasshoppers (Tetrix subulata)and exposed them to predation from domestic chickens. We paintedgrasshoppers either uniformly black or striped and manipulatedtheir behavior by changing the ambient temperature. We foundthat the striped pattern enhanced grasshopper survival whenreaction distance was short and jumping performance poor, butit decreased survival when reaction, distance was long and performancehigh, relative to uniformly black individuals. To our knowledge,this is the first experimental demonstration that selectionmediated by visual predators acts on the combination of preycolor pattern and behavior. Further studies are necessary, however,to clarify how widespread correlalional selection is in coevolvedpredator-prey relationships. Correlational selection may resultin genetic coupling between traits, influence the dynamics ofpolymorphisms, and promote the evolution of sexual dichromatismin animals exhibiting sexual differences in behavior. Our resultsalso illustrate the potential importance of visual illusionscreated by moving objects and suggest that it may be dangerousto make inferences about the relative survival value of differentcolor patterns from the outcome of experiments that do not takeinto account prey behavior.  相似文献
4.
Recent studies of blue tits, Parus caeruleus , have found sexual selection and a viability-indicating function of the structural ultraviolet and blue crown plumage, but the reasons for this signal variation are not understood. Furthermore, studies in England and Sweden have yielded somewhat different results (particularly with regard to the spectral position of the reflectance peak). Here we investigate whether the blue tit UV/blue ornament varies with time of year since such variation might be relevant to the signalling function as well as the apparent difference between populations. From 400 blue tits captured at two different localities in Sweden, we found that objective measures of 'hue' (spectral location), 'chroma' (spectral purity) and 'brightness' (spectral intensity), varied substantially with season. Just after moult (October), crown 'hue' is maximally UV-shifted (359 nm for males and 373 nm for females). Thereafter the peak drifts upwards and by the time of nestling feeding (June) male reflectance peaks at 404 nm and female at 413 nm. This change is probably due to feather wear as well as fat and dirt accumulation, which might constitute an additional male quality cue. Our results suggest that it is important to consider plumage age when exploring variation in structural plumage coloration, and that it can largely explain the difference between the British and Swedish studies. © 2002 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society , 2002, 76 , 237–245.  相似文献
5.
Sexual Dichromatism and Female Preference in Eulemur fulvus Subspecies   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:0  
We experimentally tested the hypothesis that sexual dichromatism in the subspecies of Eulemur fulvus is the evolutionary result of female preference for brightly colored males. Ten female lemurs representing 6 different subspecies of Eulemur fulvus were subjects in the experiment; controls were 4 females of non-sexually dichromatic lemurid taxa. For each taxon we presented photographs of the face of a male of that taxon whose colors had been digitally altered to make him less and more colourful. Median viewing times of the pooled female Eulemur fulvus are significantly correlated with colorfulness. Viewing times in the control females are not correlated with color or brightness of the stimulus photographs. We concluded that the females of the Eulemur fulvus sspp. preferred to view photographs of more colorful males, which is consistent with the predictions of sexual selection theory.  相似文献
6.
Moult is an important process in the life cycle of birds. Passerines differ widely in the number, seasonality and extension of moult episodes, but the incidence of birds ecology on this variation remains largely uninvestigated. We analysed the patterns of moult in European passerines in relation to their distribution, migration and sexual dichromatism. Longer migrations and southern wintering quarters were characteristic of species with complete moults in summer and an additional moult in winter. The main moult in species with larger seasonal changes in sexual dimorphism tended to be scheduled just before the start of the breeding season, suggesting a link between sexual selection and the timing of moult. These patterns strongly support the importance of migration and dichromatism on the evolution of moult strategies.  相似文献
7.
Colour pattern characteristics and gonad histology were used to detect sexual dichromatisms in yellowfin grouper Mycteroperca venenosa and tiger grouper Mycteroperca tigris from the Campeche Bank, Mexico. Specimens were obtained from commercial catches between March and May during 2002 and 2004. All specimens were examined dead. Ninety-seven per cent of males had different sex-associated colour patterns. Male yellowfin grouper displayed a bright yellow blotch on both sides of the lower jaw while females retained a reddish lower jaw. Male tiger grouper had uniform dark pectoral fins while females had bright orange pectoral fins. In situ observations of live fishes at fishing sites showed the lower jaw and pectoral fin colourations to be clearly visible underwater at a depth of 35 m. All males of both species and most females (80% yellowfin grouper and 98% tiger grouper) were sexually active and probably caught during their spawning season. This suggests that distinct colourations observed for male M. venenosa and M. tigris may be seasonal displays associated with spawning. Both the lower jaw and pectoral fin colourations were still visible in dead fishes after several days on ice. Differences observed for ray length of exserted vertical fins in tiger grouper specimens were probably not a sex-associated characteristic.  相似文献
8.
ABSTRACT.   Although sexual differences in birds can be extreme, differences between males and females in body size and plumage color are more subtle in many species. We used a genetic-based approach to determine the sex of male and female Steere's Liocichla ( Liocichla steerii ) and examine the degree of size dimorphism and plumage dichromatism in this apparently monomorphic species. We found that males were significantly larger than females. In addition, Steere's Liocichla have a prominent yellow plumage patch on the lores that was significantly larger in males than females for both live birds and museum specimens. We also used reflectance spectrometry to quantify the color of the yellow-green breast feathers of Steere's Liocichla and found no significant differences between males and females in brightness, intensity, saturation, or hue. However, females tended to have brighter breast plumage, particularly at long wavelengths. Collectively, these color variables were useful in discriminating birds according to sex when used in a discriminant function analysis. Our study suggests that sexual selection may be more widespread than once assumed, even among birds considered monomorphic, and emphasizes the need for additional data from tropical and subtropical species.  相似文献
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