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All therian mammals have a similar XY/XX sex‐determination system except for a dozen species. The African pygmy mouse, Mus minutoides, harbors an unconventional system in which all males are XY, and there are three types of females: the usual XX but also XX* and X*Y ones (the asterisk designates a sex‐reversal mutation on the X chromosome). The long‐term evolution of such a system is a paradox, because X*Y females are expected to face high reproductive costs (e.g., meiotic disruption and loss of unviable YY embryos), which should prevent invasion and maintenance of a sex‐reversal mutation. Hence, mechanisms for compensating for the costs could have evolved in M. minutoides. Data gathered from our laboratory colony revealed that X*Y females do compensate and even show enhanced reproductive performance in comparison to the XX and XX*; they produce significantly more offspring due to (i) a higher probability of breeding, (ii) an earlier first litter, and (iii) a larger litter size, linked to (iv) a greater ovulation rate. These findings confirm that rare conditions are needed for an atypical sex‐determination mechanism to evolve in mammals, and provide valuable insight into understanding modifications of systems with highly heteromorphic sex chromosomes.  相似文献
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雌雄异株植物是研究性别决定遗传机制及性染色体起源与进化的理想材料, 而克隆性别决定基因是解析性别决定遗传机制的关键。木本植物中有丰富的雌雄异株植物, 且包括2种相反的性别决定系统: XY型(雌株为同配型的XX, 雄株为异配型的XY)和ZW型(雌株为异配型的ZW, 雄株为同配型的ZZ)。此外, 不同性别植株的经济价值也有所不同。在木本植物中开展性别决定机制研究不仅具有重要的理论意义, 还具有较高的生产应用价值。随着大规模基因测序技术的快速发展, 越来越多的木本植物性别决定基因被鉴定和克隆, 为解析雌雄异株植物性别决定机制和性染色体的演化过程提供了有力的实验证据。该文详细总结了近年来木本植物性别决定基因研究的重要进展, 并展望了未来的研究方向及发展趋势。  相似文献
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两栖动物性别决定类型和性染色体具有多样性的特点。在已发现异形性染色体两栖动物中,大部分物种Y或W染色体大于其对应的X或Z染色体,少数物种具有高度分化的Y或W染色体。同时两栖动物类群内基因组大小差异大,性染色体间分子水平上也存在差异。高频转换、偶然重组和染色体重排可能是两栖动物性染色体进化过程中的关键机制。本综述通过对两栖动物性染色体进化的深入探讨,揭示其遗传性别决定的机理,有助于对两栖动物性别人工调控的进一步探索。  相似文献
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Schneider MC  Almeida MC  Rosa SP  Costa C  Cella DM 《Genetica》2006,128(1-3):333-346
The speciose Brazilian Elateridae fauna is characterized by high karyotypic diversity, including one species (Chalcolepidius zonatus Eschscholtz, 1829) with the lowest diploid number within any Coleoptera order. Cytogenetic analysis of Conoderus dimidiatus Germar, 1839, C. scalaris (Germar, 1824,) C. ternarius Germar, 1839, and C. stigmosus Germar, 1839 by standard and differential staining was performed with the aim of establishing mechanisms of karyotypic differentiation in these species. Conoderus dimidiatus, C. scalaris, and C. ternarius have diploid numbers of 2n(♂) = 17 and 2n(♀) = 18, and a X0/XX sex determination system, similar to that encountered in the majority of Conoderini species. The karyotype of C. stigmosus was characterized by a diploid number of 2n=16 and a neoXY/neoXX sex determination system that was highly differentiated from other species of the genus. Some features of the mitotic and meiotic chromosomes suggest an autosome/ancestral X chromosome fusion as the cause of the neoXY system origin in C. stigmosus. C-banding and silver impregnation techniques showed that the four Conoderus species possess similar chromosomal characteristics to those registered in most Polyphaga species, including pericentromeric C band and autosomal NORs. Triple staining techniques including CMA3/DA/DAPI also provided useful information for differentiating these Conoderus species. These techniques revealed unique GC-rich heterochromatin associated with NORs in C. scalaris and C. stigmosus and CMA3-heteromorphism in C. scalaris and C. ternarius.  相似文献
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Elucidation of the sex‐determination mechanism in flathead grey mullet (Mugil cephalus) is required to exploit its economic potential by production of genetically determined monosex populations and application of hormonal treatment to parents rather than to the marketed progeny. Our objective was to construct a first‐generation linkage map of the M. cephalus in order to identify the sex‐determining region and sex‐determination system. Deep‐sequencing data of a single male was assembled and aligned to the genome of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). A total 245 M. cephalus microsatellite markers were designed, spanning the syntenic tilapia genome assembly at intervals of 10 Mb. In the mapping family of full‐sib progeny, 156 segregating markers were used to construct a first‐generation linkage map of 24 linkage groups (LGs), corresponding to the number of chromosomes. The linkage map spanned approximately 1200 cM with an average inter‐marker distance of 10.6 cM. Markers segregating on LG9 in two independent mapping families showed nearly complete concordance with gender (R2 = 0.95). The sex determining locus was fine mapped within an interval of 8.6 cM on LG9. The sex of offspring was determined only by the alleles transmitted from the father, thus indicating an XY sex‐determination system.  相似文献
6.
All species of the genus Populus (poplar, aspen) are dioecious, suggesting an ancient origin of this trait. Despite some empirical counter examples, theory suggests that nonrecombining sex‐linked regions should quickly spread, eventually becoming heteromorphic chromosomes. In contrast, we show using whole‐genome scans that the sex‐associated region in Populus trichocarpa is small and much younger than the age of the genus. This indicates that sex determination is highly labile in poplar, consistent with recent evidence of ‘turnover’ of sex‐determination regions in animals. We performed whole‐genome resequencing of 52 P. trichocarpa (black cottonwood) and 34 Populus balsamifera (balsam poplar) individuals of known sex. Genomewide association studies in these unstructured populations identified 650 SNPs significantly associated with sex. We estimate the size of the sex‐linked region to be ~100 kbp. All SNPs significantly associated with sex were in strong linkage disequilibrium despite the fact that they were mapped to six different chromosomes (plus 3 unmapped scaffolds) in version 2.2 of the reference genome. We show that this is likely due to genome misassembly. The segregation pattern of sex‐associated SNPs revealed this to be an XY sex‐determining system. Estimated divergence times of X and Y haplotype sequences (6–7 Ma) are much more recent than the divergence of P. trichocarpa (poplar) and Populus tremuloides (aspen). Consistent with this, in P. tremuloides, we found no XY haplotype divergence within the P. trichocarpa sex‐determining region. These two species therefore have a different genomic architecture of sex, suggestive of at least one turnover event in the recent past.  相似文献
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