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1.
梨不同DNA提取方法的效果研究   总被引:28,自引:0,他引:28       下载免费PDF全文
以7个梨品种为实验材料,比较分析了SDS法、CTAB法、SDSCTAB法、改良的CTAB法、高盐低pH值法、分步离心法对梨总DNA提取的效果。结果表明:利用以上6种方法提取的梨总DNA在纯度和量上有很大的差别。所得到的平均DNA量从大到小依次为:分步离心法、SDS法、SDSCTAB法、改良的CTAB法、CTAB法、高盐低pH值法。DNA提取纯度依次为分步离心法、SDSCTAB法、改良的CTAB法、高盐低pH值法、CTAB法、SDS法。RAPD和自交不亲和基因(S基因)特异性引物扩增实验结果都比较理想,但分步离心法和SDSCTAB法提取的DNA双酶切效果较好。分步离心法提取的梨总DNA更适用于后续的分子生物学实验操作。  相似文献
2.
PCR-based method for identifying the S-genotypes of Japanese pear cultivars   总被引:28,自引:0,他引:28  
 Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai), a member of the Rosaceae, shows gametophytic self-incompatibility that is controlled by the S-locus. The S-genotype of Japanese pear cultivars is an important factor for crossing and breeding. We report a rapid reliable method to identify these S-genotypes. It consists of PCR amplification of the S-RNase gene from genomic DNA and subsequent digestion of the PCR fragments with S-allele-specific restriction endonucleases. Using this method, we determined the unknown S-genotypes of nine Japanese pear cultivars and selected self-compatible varieties from the offspring of the self-compatible cultivar, ‘Osa-Nijisseiki’. Received: 8 June 1998 / Accepted: 19 October 1998  相似文献
3.
Structure and function of the receptor-like protein kinases of higher plants   总被引:25,自引:0,他引:25  
Cell surface receptors located in the plasma membrane have a prominent role in the initiation of cellular signalling. Recent evidence strongly suggests that plant cells carry cell surface receptors with intrinsic protein kinase activity. The plant receptor-like protein kinases (RLKs) are structurally related to the polypeptide growth factor receptors of animals which consist of a large extracytoplasmic domain, a single membrane spanning segment and a cytoplasmic domain of the protein kinase gene family. Most of the animal growth factor receptor protein kinases are tyrosine kinases; however, the plant RLKs all appear to be serine/threonine protein kinases. Based on structural similarities in their extracellular domains the RLKs fall into three categories: the S-domain class, related to the self-incompatibility locus glycoproteins of Brassica; the leucine-rich repeat class, containing a tandemly repeated motif that has been found in numerous proteins from a variety of eukaryotes; and a third class that has epidermal growth factor-like repeats. Distinct members of these putative receptors have been found in both monocytyledonous plants such as maize and in members of the dicotyledonous Brassicaceae. The diversity among plant RLKs, reflected in their structural and functional properties, has opened up a broad new area of investigation into cellular signalling in plants with far-reaching implications for the mechanisms by which plant cells perceive and respond to extracellular signals.  相似文献
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McClure BA  Franklin-Tong V 《Planta》2006,224(2):233-245
Self-incompatibility (SI) prevents the production of “self” seed and inbreeding by providing a recognition and rejection system for “self,” or genetically identical, pollen. Studies of gametophytic SI (GSI) species at a molecular level have identified two completely different S-genes and SI mechanisms. One GSI mechanism, which is found in the Solanaceae, Rosaceae and Scrophulariaceae, has S-RNase as the pistil S-component and an F-box protein as the pollen S-component. However, non-S-locus factors are also required. In an incompatible situation, the S-RNases degrade pollen RNA, thereby preventing pollen tube growth. Here, in the light of recent evidence, we examine alternative models for how compatible pollen escapes this cytotoxic activity. The other GSI mechanism, so far found only in the Papaveraceae, has a small secreted peptide, the S-protein, as its pistil S-component. The pollen S-component remains elusive, but it is thought to be a transmembrane receptor, as interaction of the S-protein with incompatible pollen triggers a signaling network, resulting in rapid actin depolymerization and pollen tube inhibition and programmed cell death (PCD). Here, we present an overview of what is currently known about the mechanisms involved in regulating pollen tube inhibition in these two GSI systems.  相似文献
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We isolated cDNA clones encoding five S-RNases (S1-,S3- , S5-, S6-, S7-RNases) from pistils of Pyrus pyrifolia (Japanese pear), a member of the Rosaceae. Their amino acid sequences were aligned with those of other rosaceous S-RNases sequenced so far. A total of 76 conserved amino acid residues were stretched throughout the sequence, but were absent from the 51–66 region which was designated the hypervariable (HV) region. The phylogenetic tree of rosaceous S-RNases showed that S-RNase polymorphism predated the divergence of Pyrus and Malus. Pairwise comparison of these S-RNases detected two highly homologous pairs, P. pyrifolia S1- and S4-RNases (90.0%) and P. pyrifolia S3- and S5-RNases (95.5%). The positions of amino acid substitutions between S1- and S4-RNases were spread over the entire region, but in the pair of S3- and S5-RNases, amino acid substitutions were found in the 21–90 region including the HV region. The substitutions in this restricted region appear to be sufficient to discriminate between S3 and S5 pollen and to trigger the self-incompatible reaction.  相似文献
9.
Primary structural features of the self-incompatibility protein in solanaceae   总被引:17,自引:0,他引:17  
Summary We present a sequence comparison of 12 S-allele-associated proteins from three solanaceous species with gametophytic self-incompatibility: Nicotiana alata, Petunia inflata, and Solanum chacoense. The allelic variants of the S-protein exhibit a very high degree of sequence diversity consistent with their function as recognition molecules. We identify 41 perfectly conserved residues, 18 of which are also conserved in two fungal ribonucleases, RNase T2 and RNase Rh. The residues conserved in both the S-proteins and the ribonucleases include two histidines essential for catalysis, four cysteines involved in disulfide bridges, and hydrophobic residues probably involved in the core structure of the proteins. This conservation between the two ribonucleases and the 12 divergent S-proteins confirms the previously recognized similarity between 3 more closely related N. alata S-proteins and these ribonucleases, and argues strongly for the functional importance of the ribonuclease activity of the S-protein in self-incompatibility. We also identify the 19 most variable residues, which are the prime candidates for the S-allele-specificity determinant. Twelve of these nineteen residues are clustered in two regions of hypervariability, designated HVa and HVb, which are also the most prominent hydrophilic regions of the S-protein. We suggest that these two regions might form parts of the putative pollen recognition site. Identification of these structural features forms a foundation for the study of the molecular basis of self-recognition and the biochemical mechanism of inhibition of self-pollen tube growth.On sabbatical leave from Biotechnology Center, General Foods USA, Tarrytown, NY 10591, USA  相似文献
10.
In almond, gametophytic self-incompatibility is controlled by a single multiallelic locus (S-locus). In styles, the products of S-alleles are ribonucleases, the S-RNases. Cultivated almond in California have four predominant S-alleles (S a, S b, S c, S d). We previously reported the cDNA cloning of three of these alleles, namely S b, S c and S d. In this paper we report the cloning and DNA sequence analysis of the S a allele. The Sa-RNase displays approximately 55% similarity at the amino-acid level with other almond S-RNases (Sb, Sc, and Sd) and this similarity was lower than that observed among the Sb, Sc and Sd-RNases. Using the cDNA sequence, a PCR-based identification system using genomic DNA was developed for each of the S-RNase alleles. Five almond cultivars with known self-incompatibility (SI) geno-types were analyzed. Common sequences among four S-alleles were used to create four primers, which, when used as sets, amplify DNA bands of unique size that corresponded to each of the four almond S-alleles; S a (602 bp), S b (1083 bp), S c (221 bp) and S d (343 bp). All PCR products obtained from genomic DNA isolated from the five almond cultivars were cloned and their DNA sequence obtained. The nucleotide sequence of these genomic DNA fragments matched the corresponding S-allele cDNA sequence in every case. The amplified products obtained for the S a- and S b-alleles were both longer than that expected for the coding region, revealing the presence of an intron of 84 bp in the S a-allele and 556 bp in the S b-allele. Both introns are present within the site of the hypervariable region common in S-RNases from the Rosaceae family and which may be important for S specificity. The exon portions of the genomic DNA sequences were completely consistent with the cDNA sequence of the corresponding S-allele. A useful application of these primers would be to identify the S-genotype of progeny in a breeding program, new varieties in an almond nursery, or new grower selections at the seedling stage. Received: 21 June 1999 / Accepted: 15 November 1999  相似文献
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