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Secondary sexual characters may have evolved in part to signalresistance to parasites. Avian song has been hypothesized tobe involved in this process, but the role of parasites in modulatingacoustic communication systems in birds remains largely unknown,owing to lack of experiments. We studied the relationship betweenparasitism, testosterone, song performance, and mating successin male collared flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis) by experimentallychallenging their immune system with a novel antigen. We predictedthat a challenge of the immune system would reduce song performance,and that this reduction would be conditional on the size ofa visual sexual signal, the forehead patch that was previouslyfound to reflect resistance. An antagonistic linkage betweentestosterone and immune function would predict that a challengeof the immune system should suppress testosterone level. Animmunological treatment by sheep red blood cells (SRBCs) triggereda decrease in body mass, testosterone level, and song rate,but other song traits were not significantly affected by theantigen challenge. Initial testosterone level was associatedwith forehead patch size and all song traits except song rate.SRBC injection caused stronger reduction in song rate amongmales with smaller forehead patches, and the change in songrate was also predictable by song features such as strophe complexityand length. We show that song rate and other song characteristicsmay be important cues in male-male competition and female choice.These results suggest that parasite-mediated sexual selectionhas contributed in shaping a complex acoustic communicationsystem in the collared flycatcher, and that testosterone mayplay an important role in this process. Parasitism may drivea multiple signaling mechanism involving acoustic and visualtraits with different signal function.  相似文献
We tested the novel hypothesis that arrival date in migratorybirds represents a reliable indicator of male quality that canbe used by females as a cue in extrapair mating decisions. Secondarysexual characters are often condition-dependent, and competitionfor early arrival leads to condition-dependent migration. Hence,both secondary sexual characters and arrival date are predictedto be condition-dependent indicators of male phenotypic quality.We studied the relationship between expression of a secondarysexual character, arrival date, and condition, respectively,and extrapair paternity in a Spanish population of barn swallows,Hirundo rustica. By using microsatellite markers to determinepaternity, we showed that 17.8% of all offspring (N = 674) and32.4% of all broods (N = 170) were due to extrapair paternity.Quasi-parasitism (in which the male nest owner fathered theoffspring, but the eggs were laid by another female) occurredin 2.6% of all nestlings and 2.9% of all broods. Individualswere consistent in the frequency of extrapair paternity amongfirst, second, and third broods. Males with long outermost tailfeathers, arriving early and in prime body condition, had littleextrapair paternity in their nests. This was also the case whencontrolling for the confounding effects of male age. Partialcorrelation analysis was used to investigate the direct andindirect effects of tail length, arrival date, and body conditionon extrapair paternity. Body condition accounted for most ofthe variance in extrapair paternity, whereas tail length andarrival date accounted for a smaller proportion of the variance.Body condition was strongly correlated with tail length andarrival date. However, because females cannot directly assesscondition or arrival date (males arrive before females), femalesmay obtain an indirect measure of condition and migration abilityfrom tail length and other phenotypic traits of males. Thissuggests that extrapair paternity depends on the effects ofcondition, through its indirect effects on arrival date, taillength, and other variables.  相似文献
Life-history theory posits trade-offs between fitness components. Reproduction negatively affects physiology and immune systemfunctioning, and the effect of this form of stress may be mediatedby glucocorticosteroids. We manipulated brood size of barnswallows (Hirundo rustica) to study the effect of stress arisingfrom reproductive effort on corticosterone levels of males.We also measured T-cell—mediated immunocompetence by intradermally injecting birds with phytohemagglutinin, whichis mitogenic to T-lymphocytes. The results confirmed the predictionof a negative effect of parental effort on lymphoproliferativeresponse. We found no covariation between immune response andcorticosterone levels. Males with long tails, an ornament currentlyunder directional sexual selection, had a relatively large T-cell response to the mitogen, consistent with models of parasite-mediated sexual selection predicting higher levels of immune defensein highly ornamented males. In addition, males with large sexualornaments had relatively low corticosterone levels at the endof the parental period. These results can be reconciled withthe hypothesis proposing a trade-off between parental activitiesand adaptive immunity and suggest that highly ornamented malesare less exposed or less susceptible to stress arising fromparental effort.  相似文献
高原鳅属鱼类雄性第二性征   总被引:6,自引:1,他引:5  
检测了33种350余尾高原鳅属Triplophysa鱼类的雄性标本,依据吻部两颊和胸鳍的特征,将该属鱼类的雄性第2性征分为12种类型。高原鳅的雄性第2性征具有多样性,不同种类的雄性第2性征可能存在差异,分布在不同或相同水系的同一种类的个体间雄性第2性征也可能发生变化。检视结果表明,仅依据雄性第2性征把高原鳅属划分为高原鳅亚属和赫氏鳅亚属Hedinichthys并不适合。  相似文献
根据噶氏斑纹和雄性个体的副性征,对我国的鳅属鱼类进行了分类整理.一直被作为中华鳅Cobitis sinensis Sauvage et Dabry,1874同物异名的长吻鳅G.dolichorhynchus Nichols,1918和稀有鳅C.rarus Chen,1981不仅在噶氏斑纹上存在差异,而且它们雄性个体的副性征也明显有别,为有效种;而1925年Nichols命名的花斑鳅C.melanoleuca Nichols,1925与北方鳅C.granoei Rendahl,1935或中华鳅不同,也为有效种.因此,鳅属鱼类在我国共有8种,即中华鳅、黑龙江鳅C.lutheri Rendahl,1935、北方鳅、稀有鳅、沙花鳅C.arenae(Lin),1943、长吻鳅、花斑鳅和大斑鳅C.macrostigma Dabry,1872.这8种鱼类的雄性个体在胸鳍基部第1根分枝鳍条上均具有一个骨质突起(lamina circularis),且鳞片小,呈圆形或椭圆形,鳞焦大等特征;可进一步划归为鳅属中的鳅亚属Cobitis s.str..  相似文献
According to current evolutionary theory, advertising traitsthat honestly indicate an organism's genetic quality might becostly to produce or maintain, though the kind of costs involvedin this process are controversial. Recently the immunocompetencehypothesis has proposed that testosterone (T) stimulates theexpression of male sexually selected traits while decreasingimmunocompetence. Even though some recent studies have shownan effect of T on ectoparasite load, the dual effect of thehormone has not been addressed in free-living populations. Herewe report results of an experiment in a free-living populationof the lizard Psammodromus algirus during the mating season.Males implanted with T had larger patches of breeding colorand behaved more aggressively than control males. In T-implantedmales, the increase in number of ticks during the mating seasonwas significantly higher than in control males and this negativelyaffected several hematological parameters. T-males sufferedsignificantly higher mortality than control males during theexperiment The results from the manipulation of T are consistentwith the dual effect of this hormone.  相似文献
中华绒螯蟹(Eridcheir sinensis)1龄性早熟是扣蟹养殖过程中的一个重要问题,尚不清楚1龄性早熟和2龄正常性成熟后代的生长发育规律是否存在差异,本研究通过构建1龄性早熟和正常性成熟中华绒螯蟹家系,综合比较了单养条件下两种家系子一代(以下简称早熟F1和正常F1)在扣蟹和成蟹阶段的生长蜕壳规律、雌蟹腹脐覆盖腹甲宽度比例、成熟后的性腺指数(GSI)和肝胰腺指数(HSI)。结果显示:(1)早熟F1雄体在第1、2次和第7、8次蜕壳后的体重显著大于正常F1雄体(P0.05);而早熟F1雌体在第1~5次和第7次蜕壳后的体重显著大于正常F1雌体(P0.05);(2)第1和2次蜕壳后早熟F1的增重率较高,正常F1在第3~8次蜕壳后的增重率略高于早熟F1,两群体在扣蟹阶段的特定生长率均呈下降趋势,且正常F1高于早熟F1,其中雌雄个体在第3~4次蜕壳后的特定生长率均存在显著差异(P0.05);(3)早熟F1在第1~5次蜕壳间隔较长,而第6~8次蜕壳间隔较短;两种家系在扣蟹养殖阶段蜕壳4~6次,成蟹养殖阶段蜕壳2~4次,其中早熟F1在扣蟹阶段的平均蜕壳次数低于正常F1,而在成蟹阶段的平均蜕壳次数高于正常F1;(4)早熟F1腹脐覆盖腹甲宽度比例一直高于正常F1,但二者无显著差异(P0.05);(5)无论雌体还是雄体,早熟F1和正常F1的性腺指数和肝胰腺指数均无显著差异,单养条件下性腺均可发育成熟(P0.05)。综上,单养条件下,中华绒螯蟹早熟F1和正常F1的生长模式存在显著差异,两者都可以完成生殖蜕壳和性腺发育成熟,这为今后深入研究中华绒螯蟹个体生物学提供了理论依据和参考资料。  相似文献
A model of evolution based on conflicts of interest between the sexes over mating decisions is examined in relation to diving beetles (Dytiscidae). The model predicts the following evolutionary sequence: (1) cost to females of mating increases, (2) females evolve behavioural resistance to male mating attempts, (3) males evolve devices to overcome female resistance, and (4) females evolve morphological counter-adaptations to the male devices. This model is tested using species of Dytiscidae, in which (1) some species have a very long mating duration while others mate quickly, (2) females of some species resist male mating attempts by swift and erratic swimming when seized by a male, (3) males of some species possess a grasping device in the form of sucker-shaped setae on the legs used to adhere to the pronota or elytra of females prior to mating, and (4) females of some species have a modified dorsal cuticle with irregular sculpturing which appears to interfere with the male adhesive setae. The predicted order of evolution of some of these features was tested in a cladistic analysis of 52 taxa in Dytiscidae and Hygrobiidae using characters from adult and larval morphology and a portion of the gene wingless . The combined analysis resulted in nine most parsimonious cladograms. The consensus cladogram of these indicates that male sucker setae arose a single time in a clade of Dytiscinae. Nested within this clade are five groups with an independently derived, modified dorsal cuticle in females. This pattern of characters in Dytiscinae is consistent with the prediction implied by the model of sexual selection. The utility of wingless as a marker for phylogenetic analysis of diving beetles is discussed, and the resulting phylogeny is compared with previous analyses and current classification.  © 2003 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society , 2003, 79 , 359–388.  相似文献
Ornamental tail feathers of male barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) confer an advantage in sexual selection because long-tailed males are preferred by females. However, the size of tail ornaments exceeds the natural selection optimum and males are predicted to pay an energetic cost for flying, directly related to tail length. An increase in hematocrit is an adaptive response to enhance oxygen uptake, for example during periods of intense locomotory activity. In this study, we analyzed the effect of experimental manipulation of tail length on the hematocrit of male barn swallows from an Italian and a Spanish population. We predicted that the natural decrease in hematocrit during the breeding season would be reduced by experimental elongation and enhanced by experimental shortening of tail ornaments. The results showed that the decrease in hematocrit was significantly different among tail treatments, and tail-elongated males had the smallest hematocrit reduction. In Italy, the hematocrit of tail-elongated males did not change after tail manipulation, while that of two control groups and tail-shortened males decreased. A comparatively high hematocrit in males with experimentally enlarged tail ornaments may be a response to increased energetic requirements and, hence, to oxygen demands for flying imposed by their tail morphology. Received: 22 June 1996 / Accepted: 23 October 1996  相似文献
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