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Illegal wildlife trade in the Himalayan region of China   总被引:8,自引:1,他引:7  
The Himalayan region of China, with its rich biodiversity, used to be important for hunting and collecting of medicinal plants. In the past decades, conservation attitudes and legislation for wildlife conservation have developed rapidly in China. Increasing numbers of species are listed in the state protection list and local protection lists. In the Himalayan region, the area of natural reserves is high accounting for 70% of total area of natural reserves in China. However, wildlife in Himalayan region is suffering from illegal hunting and trade even after China has enforced the China Wildlife Protection Law (CWPL). The illegal wildlife trade and smuggling across Sino-neighbouring country borders and illegal wildlife trade related to domestic use flourish in the region. Although domestic illegal trade has declined in the past ten years, international illegal trade and smuggling continue, and are even expanding, thereby threatening survival of many endangered species such as the Tibetan antelope (Pantholops hodgsoni), Giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug). Illegal wildlife trade in the region is attributed to four factors. First, the CWPL is still imperfect, especially concerning illegal trade and smuggling across borders. Second, CWPL is not fully enforced. Third, infrastructure in many nature reserves is undeveloped and human resources are lacking. Fourth, protection is hampered by differences in the laws of neighbouring countries, differences in penalties and in degrees of protection. Furthermore, national legislation is often not fully enforced in areas that are inhabited mainly by tribal and minority communities.  相似文献
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殷守敬  马鸣  徐峰 《四川动物》2005,24(4):585-585
采用电子微芯片皮下注射技术在新疆北部对13只猎隼幼鸟进行微芯片注射.微芯片的编号代表了大量生物学信息.微芯片注射技术是研究鸟类迁徙及获取繁殖生物学的重要手段.希望回收到ID信息者及时与中国猎隼研究小组(新疆)联系.  相似文献
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通过与从GenBank中下载的8种隼属鸟类的Cytb和COⅠ部分序列进行同源比对,并以最大简约法(MP)和贝叶斯推断法(BI)构建系统树,对1只涉案的隼科鸟类进行了分子鉴定。结果表明:样品与猎隼Cytb和COⅠ的序列同源性最高,分别为98.91%~99.41%和99.67%~100%,样品与猎隼Cytb和COⅠ序列的遗传距离最小,分别为0.003~0.007和0.000~0.003;同时,样品和猎隼在两种系统树上都始终聚在一起。由此可推断该样品为猎隼,为2010年5月四川省丹巴县森林公安局受理的非法盗猎和贩运隼形目鸟类一案的审理提供了有力的证据。  相似文献
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The inadequately controlled trade in gyr and saker falcons has lead to saker falcons becoming endangered and both species being CITES listed. However, the phylogenetic relationship between these nominal species is unresolved preventing their molecular identification and limiting the availability of data for conservation management. This study amplified DNA from the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene and nine nuclear microsatellite markers to highlight previously unobserved genetic differences between these two putative species. Results show that gyr and saker are paraphyletic using COI and therefore indistinguishable using this marker. However, the microsatellite allele frequency differences suggest that it is possible to assign an unidentified bird to its correct species with 98% accuracy. The results suggest the two species should be monitored separately to ensure short term conservation success. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.  相似文献
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猎隼(Falco cherrug)主要繁殖于我国西部省区,为国家Ⅱ级重点保护动物。2005年在新疆准噶尔盆地东缘采用野外调查方法研究了其繁殖生态。猎隼繁殖期为4—7月;窝卵数平均为(4.0±0.63)(3—5)枚;卵长径为(55.40±3.06)mm,卵短径为(41.11±1.70)mm;猎隼的孵化率、雏鸟成活率和繁殖力分别为70.8%、64.7%和1.8;巢成功率为83.3%。雏鸟体重、跗长的生长符合逻辑斯谛曲线增长。食物的可利用性是限制新疆猎隼窝卵数和生殖力的主导因素。要有效保护猎隼首先应保护栖息环境和猎物的多样性及丰富度。  相似文献
6.
Microsatellite as well as sequence analysis of the mitochondrial control region were applied to infer phylogeography and population genetic structure of the saker falcon (Falco cherrug). Furthermore, we compared the patterns of mitochondrial haplotypes with the variation of microsatellite alleles among the species of the hierofalcon complex (F. cherrug, Falco rusticolus, Falco biarmicus, Falco jugger) to test hypotheses on population history. Historical samples from museum specimens of F. cherrug were analysed together with samples from contemporary populations to investigate possible influences of hybrid falcons escaped from falconry on the genetic composition. In the mitochondrial DNA analysis, none of the four species represents a monophyletic group. Moreover, there are no clearly defined groups of haplotypes corresponding to taxonomic entities. In the microsatellite analysis most of the variation is shared between species and no clear differentiation by private alleles is found. Yet, with a Bayesian clustering method based on allele frequencies, a differentiation of F. cherrug, F. rusticolus and two geographic groups of F. biarmicus was detected. Results from both nuclear and mitochondrial markers are compatible with the previously postulated 'Out of Africa' hypothesis assuming an African origin of the hierofalcons. From an ancestral African population, F. cherrug, F. rusticolus and F. jugger split off in separate waves of immigration into Eurasia and South Asia. A combination of evolutionary processes, including incomplete lineage sorting as well as hybridization, may be responsible for the currently observed genetic patterns in hierofalcons.  相似文献
7.
Significant interspecific differences in avian vision occur, even in congeneric species, and these have been correlated with differences in the perceptual challenges associated with foraging. Although diurnal raptors are assumed to be mainly visually guided in their foraging, they differ markedly in their foraging tactics and this may result in different visual demands. Among the Falconidae (Falconiformes), most falcons forage mainly on the wing for highly mobile prey, whereas caracaras forage on the ground for carrion and insects. We assessed whether Saker Falcon Falco cherrug and Southern Caracara Caracara plancus differ in their visual abilities by determining the visual fields and foveal characteristics of both species. Using an ophthalmoscopic reflex technique, we found a higher degree of binocular overlap in the caracaras than in the falcons. The high binocular overlap (47°) of the Southern Caracara may facilitate object manipulation (e.g. moving rocks) when foraging. We used an ultra‐high resolution spectral‐domain optical coherence tomography to determine foveal characteristics. We found two foveas (depressions in the retina where high visual resolution is expected) in the falcons (one central and one temporal) but only a central fovea in the caracaras. The presence of a shallower temporal fovea in Saker Falcons may help to fixate visually upon a highly mobile prey item during pursuit. We conclude that these differences in visual field configurations and foveal characteristics reflect different foraging demands, suggesting that the extraction of visual information is finely tuned to the demands of their foraging tactics.  相似文献
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