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A new cottid species,Icelus ecornis, is described on the basis of 31 specimens collected from 159–226 m in the southwestern Okhotsk Sea off Hokkaido, Japan. It is distinguished from all other members of the genusIcelus by the following combination of characters: no supraocular and parietal spines; short blunt nuchal spine; cirri absent from head and body, except for supraocular, parietal and nuchal regions; platelike scales of dorsal row bearing 6–10 long uniform spinules; tubular lateral line scales bearing small spines on dorsal and posterior margins; large oval black spot on first dorsal fin; 16–20 anal fin rays.  相似文献
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Superantigens (SAgs) are potent microbial toxins that bind simultaneously to T cell receptors (TCRs) and class II major histocompatibility complex molecules, resulting in the activation and expansion of large T cell subsets and the onset of numerous human diseases. Within the bacterial SAg family, streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin I (SpeI) has been classified as belonging to the group V SAg subclass, which are characterized by a unique, relatively conserved ∼15 amino acid extension (amino acid residues 154 to 170 in SpeI; herein referred to as the α3-β8 loop), absent in SAg groups I through IV. Here, we report the crystal structure of SpeI at 1.56 Å resolution. Although the α3-β8 loop in SpeI is several residues shorter than that of another group V SAg, staphylococcal enterotoxin serotype I, the C-terminal portions of these loops, which are located adjacent to the putative TCR binding site, are structurally similar. Mutagenesis and subsequent functional analysis of SpeI indicates that TCR β-chains are likely engaged in a similar general orientation as other characterized SAgs. We show, however, that the α3-β8 loop length, and the presence of key glycine residues, are necessary for optimal activation of T cells. Based on Vβ-skewing analysis of human T cells activated with SpeI and structural models, we propose that the α3-β8 loop is positioned to form productive intermolecular contacts with the TCR β-chain, likely in framework region 3, and that these contacts are required for optimal TCR recognition by SpeI, and likely all other group V SAgs.  相似文献
3.
The frutescent species of the lichen genusCaloplaca are usually united in sect.Thamnoma, but they do not form a natural group. They are derived from different species groups within sect.Gasparrinia from different parts of the world, presumable from species having scleroplectenchymes in cortex and medulla. The algal cells are concentrated between the scleroplectenchymatic strands in large and dense groups, from where medullary plectenchyme extends to the cortex and forms characteristic pseudocyphellae there.—Most of the species seem to be ornithocoprophilous; they grow on rocks along marine coasts where much fog is induced by cold currents.—Caloplaca cribrosa is endemic in Tasmania and New Zealand,C. regalis and the doubtfulC. ambitiosa belong to the antarctic element.C. fragillima from central Chile seems to be propagated by thallus fragments.C. coralloides andC. thamnodes are endemic to California and Baja California respectively.C. cladodes from the Rocky Mountains deviates in many characteristics from the other species i.a. by it different ontogenetic development, reduced spore septum, and cementing amyloid polysaccharides within the scleroplectenchymatic strands. The African species are characterized by their distinctly dorsiventral lobes and usually possess oil cells in some of the paraphyses.Caloplaca bonae-spei, C. fragillima andC. thamnodes are new to science.
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