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We examined the effect of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors in models of nociception and correlated this effect with localization and expression levels of p38 MAPK in spinal cord. There was a rapid increase in phosphorylated p38 MAPK in spinal cord following intrathecal administration of substance P or intradermal injection of formalin. Immunocytochemistry revealed that phosphorylated p38 MAPK-immunoreactive cells were predominantly present in laminae I-IV of the dorsal horn. Double-staining with markers for neurons, microglia, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes unexpectedly revealed co-localization with microglia but not with neurons or other glia. Pretreatment with p38 MAPK inhibitors (SB20358 or SD-282) had no effect on acute thermal thresholds. However, they attenuated hyperalgesia in several nociceptive models associated with spinal sensitization including direct spinal activation (intrathecal substance P) and peripheral tissue inflammation (intraplantar formalin or carrageenan). Spinal sensitization, manifested by enhanced expression of cyclo-oxygenase-2 and inflammation-induced appearance of Fos-positive neurons, was blocked by pretreatment, but not post-treatment, with p38 MAPK inhibitors. Taken together, these results indicate that spinal p38 MAPK is involved in inflammation-induced pain and that activated spinal microglia play a direct role in spinal nociceptive processing.  相似文献
A rice semidwarfing gene, sd-1, known as the "green revolution gene," was isolated by positional cloning and revealed to encode gibberellin 20-oxidase, the key enzyme in the gibberellin biosynthesis pathway. Analysis of 3477 segregants using several PCR-based marker technologies, including cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence, derived-CAPS, and single nucleotide polymorphisms revealed 1 ORF in a 6-kb candidate interval. Normal-type rice cultivars have an identical sequence in this region, consisting of 3 exons (558, 318, and 291 bp) and 2 introns (105 and 1471 bp). Dee-Geo-Woo-Gen-type sd-1 mutants have a 383-bp deletion from the genome (278-bp deletion from the expressed sequence), from the middle of exon 1 to upstream of exon 2, including a 105-bp intron, resulting in a frame-shift that produces a termination codon after the deletion site. The radiation-induced sd-1 mutant Calrose 76 has a 1-bp substitution in exon 2, causing an amino acid substitution (Leu [CTC] to Phe [TTC]). Expression analysis suggests the existence of at least one more locus of gibberellin 20-oxidase which may prevent severe dwarfism from developing in sd-1 mutants.  相似文献
方创林  余丹林 《生态学报》1999,19(6):767-774
柴达木盆地作为我国下世纪重点开发地区之一,对其资源合理开发利用不仅对青海省经济发展有着举足轻重的作用,而且对缩小东西部发展差距、支援西藏、巩固国防有着不可估量的作用。以对盆地的实地考察为基础,运用SD模型对盆地资源开发和经济同生态环境协调发展弹性方案进行试验调控,得出追求经济发展为主目标的发展型方案、追求资源与生态环境保护为目标的保护型方案和追求人口、资源、环境和经济社会协调发展为主目标的协调型发  相似文献
The aim of this work was to examine the effect of temperature in the range 5 to 30 ° C upon the regulation of photosynthetic carbon assimilation in leaves of the C4 plant maize (Zea mays L.) and the C3 plant barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Measurements of the CO2-assimilation rate in relation to the temperature were made at high (735 bar) and low (143 bar) intercellular CO2 pressure in barley and in air in maize. The results show that, as the temperature was decreased, (i) in barley, pools of phosphorylated metabolites, particularly hexose-phosphate, ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate and fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, increased in high and low CO2; (ii) in maize, pools of glycerate 3-phosphate, triose-phosphate, pyruvate and phosphoenolpyruvate decreased, reflecting their role in, and dependence on, intercellular transport processes, while pools of hexose-phosphate, ribulose 1,5-bis phosphate and fructose 1,6-bisphosphate remained approximately constant; (iii) the redox state of the primary electron acceptor of photosystem II (QA) increased slightly in barley, but rose abruptly below 12° C in maize. Non-photochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence increased slightly in barley and increased to high values below 20 ° C in maize. The data from barley are consistent with the development of a limitation by phosphate status at low temperatures in high CO2, and indicate an increasing regulatory importance for regeneration of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate within the Calvin cycle at low temperatures in low CO2. The data from maize do not show that any steps of the C4 cycle are particularly cold-sensitive, but do indicate that a restriction in electron transport occurs at low temperature. In both plants the data indicate that regulation of product synthesis results in the maintenance of pools of Calvin-cycle intermediates at low temperatures.Abbreviations Glc6P glucose-6-phosphate - Fru6P fructase-6-phosphate - Frul,6bisP fructose-1,6-bisphosphate - PGA glycerate-3-phosphate - p i intercellular partial pressure of CO2 - RuBP ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate - triose-P sum of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate We thank the Agricultural and Food Research Council, UK (Research grant PG50/67) and the Science and Engineering Research Council, UK for financial support. C.A.L. was supported by the British Council, by the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientiflco e Tecnologico (CNPq), Brazil and by an Overseas Research Student Award. We also thank Mark Stitt (Bayreuth, FRG) and Debbie Rees for helpful discussions.  相似文献
Neuroprotective role of isoflavones in particular genistein might be resulted from their antioxidant activities in addition to their estrogenic actions. In the present study, we investigated effect of genistein on iron-induced free radical reaction in cultured cortical neurons. Thiobarbituric-acid-reactive species (TBARS) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were measured after incubation of the cells with different concentrations of genistein in the absence or presence of iron (12.5 M) for 24 h. Genistein at 100 M significantly reduced the iron-induced TBARS, implying that genistein has an inhibitory role on iron-induced lipid peroxidation. Also, genistein (100 M) led to a relatively higher SOD level than that in iron treatment although no significant difference was found. The findings imply that the antioxidative effect of genistein is partly associated with its neuroprotective function.  相似文献
刘淼  胡远满  常禹  贺红士  布仁仓 《生态学报》2009,29(11):6110-6119
模型模拟是生态学中的重要方法,特别是当实验不可进行时.在不同预案下基于模型的土地利用预测对于土地利用规划和政策制定具有十分重要意义.然而,很多研究没有对模型在研究区的时间尺度预测能力加以分析,从而可能导致模拟结果的不可靠.以岷江上游地区为例,采用Kappa指数系列对CLUE-S模型在研究区的时间尺度预测能力进行研究.结果表明CLUE-S模型在岷江上游地区时间尺度上的最大预测能力为22a,超过时间预测能力的预测结果不可靠.研究为土地利用模型模拟时间尺度确定提供了一种有效的方法.  相似文献
新生期注射谷氨酸单钠对大鼠骨骼的影响   总被引:7,自引:0,他引:7  
目的:探讨下丘脑弓状核对大鼠骨骼的影响。方法:用损毁弓状核(ARC)的方法。将SD大鼠于出生后第1、3、5、7、9d皮下注射10%谷氨酸单钠(MSG)4g/kgbw,对照组同法注射等体积生理盐水。存活至第200d处死。剥净左侧股、胫、肱、桡、尺骨,测其重量、长度、横长径、横短径、体积。下丘脑作石蜡切片,HE染色。光镜观察ARC神经元,并用图像分析仪计算ARC神经细胞数。用放免法测血清中GH(生长素),E2(雌二醇)含量。结果:MSG大鼠弓状核神经细胞数量显著减少,股、胫、肱、桡、尺骨的重量、长度、横长径、横短径、体积都明显减少。与对照组比较差异非常显著(P〈0.01)。但单位体积骨重量(g/cm^3)与对照组差异不显著。血清GH、E2显著降低。结论:提示下丘脑弓状核通过调节与骨代谢有关的激素参与全身骨骼生长发育的调控。  相似文献
CLUE-S模型在南京市土地利用变化研究中的应用   总被引:6,自引:3,他引:3  
盛晟  刘茂松  徐驰  郁文  陈虹 《生态学杂志》2008,27(2):235-239
土地利用/覆盖变化模型是研究区域景观动态并解释其驱动机制的重要技术手段.应用CLUE-S模型,在Landsat TM影像等相关数据支持下,对南京地区1998-2006年土地利用的时空动态变化进行了研究.结果表明:各土地利用类型变化受地形因素影响最大,人均GDP与城镇用地和农业用地的分布呈显著相关,城乡主干道对土地利用变化的贡献显著大于省级及以上道路;海拔较高区域林地的发生比率较高,而地形低平区域农田、城建用地的发生比率较高.经检验,在300 m空间分辨率水平,对南京地区2003年、2006年土地利用状况模拟的精度分别达到了85.7%和84.1%;而通过将研究区分成若干子区,分别修正模型参数并重新模拟,准确率提高到89.7%和88.3%,分区赋值法有效地提高了模拟精度.研究表明,CLUE-S模型对城市发展的空间结构也有较强的预测能力,对指导城市规划、分析景观动态的驱动机制有重要参考价值.  相似文献
低碳经济发展战略研究进展   总被引:6,自引:0,他引:6       下载免费PDF全文
赵志凌  黄贤金  赵荣钦  赖力 《生态学报》2010,30(16):4493-4502
发展低碳经济已成为国家和区域发展的重要战略。从发展战略的角度,对低碳经济的产生背景、内涵和理论基础等进行了总结和归纳;在此基础上提出了低碳经济发展战略框架研究的主要内容,包括碳政治和碳排放权分配、目标思路、指标体系构建和碳排放的核算;从政策路径、政策工具和政策仿真等方面介绍了低碳经济发展战略的政策研究的主要内容和国内外研究进展。最后指出当前研究的不足之处和未来研究趋向,主要有:低碳经济理论的深入研究,低碳经济战略和政策工具研究,区域低碳经济发展模式研究,低碳经济发展潜力、市场规模和经济技术风险研究,碳减排标准规范的研究和制定。  相似文献
Marrow stromal cells (MSCs) have the ability to provide growth factors and differentiate into neural-like cells on treating with EGF, bFGF and other factors. We wanted to explore whether growth factors secreted by MSCs itself could induce self-differentiation into neural-like cells. Here, we show that even in the absence of inducing factors, rMSCs spontaneously differentiate into neural-like cells expressing neural markers, such as nestin, beta-tubulin III, Doublecortin (DCX), microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) and neuron-specific enolase (NSE). Furthermore, some cells become neurosphere-like growing in suspension. Compared with control and neural-like rMSCs induced by epidermal growth factor (EGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), we found using real-time PCR that self-differentiating rMSCs (SDrMSCs) expressed significantly higher levels of neurotrophic high-affinity receptors (TrkA and TrkB). Coincident with neural marker expression, nerve growth factor (NGF) mRNA was significantly higher than controls despite lower protein levels in the supernatant. Our study suggests that rMSCs have the potential to differentiate into neural cells spontaneously in culture and may contribute towards the natural function of MSCs for neural system in vivo.  相似文献
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