首页 | 本学科首页   官方微博 | 高级检索  
文章检索
  按 检索   检索词:      
出版年份:   被引次数:   他引次数: 提示:输入*表示无穷大
  收费全文   661篇
  国内免费   2篇
  完全免费   104篇
  2021年   3篇
  2020年   8篇
  2019年   21篇
  2018年   20篇
  2017年   22篇
  2016年   21篇
  2015年   29篇
  2014年   24篇
  2013年   31篇
  2012年   22篇
  2011年   26篇
  2010年   30篇
  2009年   62篇
  2008年   49篇
  2007年   43篇
  2006年   41篇
  2005年   34篇
  2004年   33篇
  2003年   28篇
  2002年   28篇
  2001年   25篇
  2000年   12篇
  1999年   17篇
  1998年   21篇
  1997年   13篇
  1996年   15篇
  1995年   18篇
  1994年   17篇
  1993年   13篇
  1992年   8篇
  1991年   5篇
  1990年   5篇
  1989年   7篇
  1988年   2篇
  1987年   3篇
  1986年   3篇
  1985年   2篇
  1984年   3篇
  1981年   2篇
  1980年   1篇
排序方式: 共有767条查询结果,搜索用时 44 毫秒
1.
鹅掌楸的传粉环境与性配置   总被引:16,自引:3,他引:13       下载免费PDF全文
近年来研究表明,动物传粉者对植物花部诱物特征(花冠形状大小,花蜜产量和花序大小)有潜在的选择作用。不同效率的传粉者可能导致植物性配置的变化,不同传粉效率的环境下,两性花植物鹅掌楸的花粉和胚珠的配置不同,居群Z在主要访花者是传粉效率较低的类的传粉环境下,花粉粒小,花粉数量相对较高;另一方面胚珠投资的减少,缓解了低效的传粉(增大授粉的几率),增加了受精的机会。相对而言,具有高效访花者的两个居群,资源较  相似文献
2.
Life-history analysis of the Trivers and Willard sex-ratio problem   总被引:14,自引:6,他引:8  
Leimar  Olof 《Behavioral Ecology》1996,7(3):316-325
Phenotypic quality, such as condition or size, often variesbetween individuals. For species with extensive maternal care,the quality of offspring may partially be determined by thequality of their mother. Trivers and Willard (1973) predictedthat high quality females should prefer offspring of the sexwhose reproductive success is most strongly influenced by maternalcare, which in many cases will be sons. Correspondingly, lowquality females should prefer daughters. However, this predictionis not based on a proper analysis of variation in reproductivevalue. Using state-dependent life-history theory, I show herethat high quality females should prefer offspring of the sexwhose reproductive value is most strongly influenced by maternalcare. I also show that when offspring quality is strongly determinedby their mother's quality, but not influenced by their father'squality, high quality females can have higher reproductive valuethan high quality males, even though their reproductive successmay be much lower. In such cases, high quality females shouldprefer daughters and, correspondingly, low quality females shouldprefer sons.[Behav Ecol 7: 316–325 (1996)]  相似文献
3.
破碎化次生林斑块面积及斑块隔离对大山雀繁殖成功的影响   总被引:11,自引:1,他引:10  
研究了破碎化山地次生林中斑块面积及斑块隔离度对大山雀(Parus major)繁殖成功的影响,运用GPS定位系统确定了18块大,中,小3种类型的斑块及对照样点,观测了大山雀产第一枚卵时间,窝卵数,平均卵重,出雏量及雏鸟出飞量等生态指标,结果表明,斑块隔离度对大山雀繁殖成功没有影响,1999-2000年两年中,大山雀在连续分布次生林中的产卵时间平均早于各斑块中的产卵时间7.2d,各斑块间的产卵时间差异较小,连续分布次生林和较大面积斑块内的大山雀窝卵数略高于中,小面积斑块内的窝卵数,连续分布生林中的平均卵重最大,斑块面积对出雏量及雏鸟不量没有影响,中,小面积斑块内的巢损失率较高,最主要的原因是巢址竞争较激烈。  相似文献
4.
Extra-pair paternity in relation to male age in Bullock's orioles   总被引:11,自引:0,他引:11  
Single-locus minisatellite DNA profiling was used to assign paternity in a population of Bullock's orioles, Icterus galbula bullockii, and to determine the contribution of age to a male's success in obtaining extra-pair paternity. There was a very low rate of intraspecific brood parasitism (2/202 = 1.0% of chicks). Older adult males lost less within-pair paternity and gained more extra-pair fertilizations than did yearling subadult males. This resulted in adult males benefiting from an annual reproductive success more than double that of subadult males. Behavioural observations, used to determine the role of female choice in extra-pair copulations (EPCs), indicated that females actively participate in EPCs and that they prefer to obtain them from older males. While it was possible that females obtained EPCs as an insurance against the possible infertility of their social mate, the results of this study fit best with the hypothesis that females were attempting to obtain better-quality genes for their offspring by obtaining EPCs with older, better-quality males.  相似文献
5.
高寒草甸生态系统中高原鼠兔的繁殖特征   总被引:10,自引:3,他引:7  
2002年4月至8月,在中国科学院海北高寒草甸生态系统定位站附近,采用标志重捕法对高原鼠免的繁殖特征进行了研究。高原鼠兔的繁殖具有明显的季节性差异,4月下旬和5月为繁殖高峰期,雄性的睾丸重而饱满,雌性的怀孕率最大。雄性成体的体重和睾丸重在繁殖期的不同时段具有显的差异,在4月11日至5月10日、6月11日至7月10日体重和睾丸重之间呈显正相关。雌性怀孕早期胚胎数与临产前胚胎数没有显差异,未发现胚胎吸收现象;同时,胚胎数在繁殖期的不同时段存在显差异。采用种群统计学中同生群的划分方法,将5~8月份出生的幼体依次记为L1、L2、L3、L4。在出生后20天内L1、L2幼体存活率明显高于L3、L4;在从出生50天至80天期间L4的存活率显高于L2。当年出生的雌雄幼体在发育上存在不同步现象,当年出生的雌性幼体性成熟早,有的可以直接参加繁殖,但当年出生的雄性幼体却无此现象。结果表明:在海北地区,经过综合治理后,高原鼠兔的生境发生改变,其繁殖策略也随之发生改变,即,减少每次繁殖活动的投入,增加繁殖次数,延长繁殖时间。  相似文献
6.
Reproductive skew among males in a female-dominated mammalian society   总被引:9,自引:2,他引:7  
The purpose of this study was to document patterns of reproductiveskew among male spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta), a speciesin which many normal mammalian sex roles are reversed. We usedpaternity determined from 12 microsatellite markers togetherwith demographic and behavioral data collected over 10 yearsfrom a free-living population to document relationships among reproductive success (RS), social rank, and dispersal statusof male hyenas. Our data suggest that dispersal status andlength of residence are the strongest determinants of RS. Natalmales comprise over 20% of the adult male population, yet theysire only 3% of cubs, whereas immigrants sire 97%. This reproductiveadvantage to immigrants accrues despite the fact that immigrants are socially subordinate to all adult natal males, and it providesa compelling ultimate explanation for primary dispersal inthis species. High-ranking immigrants do not monopolize reproduction,and tenure accounts for more of the variance in male reproductivesuccess than does social rank. Immigrant male hyenas rarelyfight among themselves, so combat between rivals may be a relativelyineffectual mode of sexual selection in this species. Instead,female choice of mates appears to play an important role in determining patterns of paternity in Crocuta. Our data supporta "limited control" model of reproductive skew in this species,in which female choice may play a more important role in limitingcontrol by dominant males than do power struggles among males.  相似文献
7.
Korndeur  Jan 《Behavioral Ecology》1996,7(3):326-333
Reproductive success of the cooperative breeding Seychelleswarbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis) increases with age. Thisage effect is not due to differential survival or increasedreproductive effort, but to accumulated helping and breedingexperience. In their first year of breeding, reproductive performanceof inexperienced warblers with neither helping nor breedingexperience was significandy lower than that of warblers of thesame age with either previous helping or breeding experience.Reproductive performance was the same for primiparae with helpingexperience and for birds with breeding experience. Female primiparaewith helping experience or breeding experience built betternests and spent more time incubating than inexperienced females,which led to increased hatching success. Male primiparae withhelping experience or males with breeding experience guardedthe clutch better than inexperienced males, which led to reducedegg predation. Even-aged warblers with different previous experienceswere transferred to unoccupied islands, where birds startedbreeding immediately in high-quality territories. The experimentshowed that birds with helping experience produced their firstfledgling as fast as experienced breeders, and significandyfaster than inexperienced birds. Breeding performance did notimprove further with experience after the first successful breedingattempt. Only birds with previous breeding experience who pairedwith inexperienced birds, were likely to change mate. The otherpair combinations remained stable. Thus, primiparous birds withhelping experience have greater lifetime reproductive successthan inexperienced primiparae of the same age. This experimentshows that helping behavior has not only been selected for inthe context of promoting an individual's indirect fitness, butalso in the context of gaining helping experience which translatesinto improved reproductive success when a helper becomes a breeder.[Behav Ecol 7: 326-333 (1996)]  相似文献
8.
Via the current model on the evolutionary ecology of female social relationships, Sterck et al. (1997) argue that ecological conditions determine how competition over food resources affects female fitness. The relative importance of different modes of competition then affects female social relationships and dispersal patterns. I outline the model and review relevant data. There are 3 modes of feeding competition: within-group scramble (WGS), within-group contest (WGC), and between-group contest (BGC), which occur in various combinations in different populations of nonhuman primates. Ecological measures support predictions that limiting resources lead to WGS and clumped resources induce WGC. The ecological basis of BGC remains elusive, but it is probably linked to resource abundance. Tests of the proxies of feeding competition support the idea that short-term search substrates and increasing group size lead to WGS, while high-quality patches of intermediate size relative to group size lead to WGC. However, when tested across populations, independent measures of aggression rates do not always match the actual or presumed competitive regimes. This mismatch might be explained by confounding factors and the predominately indirect measures of feeding competition. Predicted relationships between feeding competition and female social relationships/dispersal are only partly supported. This might be attributed to the fact that few studies have taken ultimate approaches using mechanistic correlates of fitness (net energy gain) or lifetime reproductive success to measure consequences of feeding competition. But to resolve existing inconsistencies, additional factors need to be taken into account as well, for example, male sexual strategies may affect female feeding competition; constraints on group size may enforce female dispersal; and demography may alter rates of alliances. More explicitly, ultimate approaches are needed to test the consistency of the socioecological model.  相似文献
9.
Neolamprologus pulcher is a cooperatively breeding cichlid fish,in which helpers stay in their natal territory and help withbrood care, territory defense, and maintenance. In this studywe investigated helper effects by an experimental group sizereduction in the field. After this manipulation, focal helpersin reduced groups tended to feed less, and small helpers visitedthe breeding shelter significantly more often than same-sizedhelpers in control groups. No evidence was found that remaininghelpers compensated for the removed helpers by increasing territorydefense and maintenance behavior. Breeders, however, did showa lower defense rate, possibly caused by an increase in broodcare effort. Survival of fry was significantly lower in removalthan control groups, which provides the first experimental proofin a natural population of fish that brood care helpers do effectivelyhelp. The data suggest that in small, generally younger, helpers,kin selection may be an important evolutionary cause of cooperation.Large helpers, however, who are generally older and less relatedto the breeders than small helpers are suggested to pay to beallowed to stay in the territory by helping. All group membersbenefit from group augmentation.  相似文献
10.
Male sticklebacks display multiple ornaments, and these ornamentshave been shown to be preferred by females in laboratory experiments.However, few field data exist, and it is not known whether thesepreferences are simultaneously or sequentially operative ina single population. We report correlates of reproductive successin two stickleback populations that differ in their ecology,over several periods within their breeding season. In both populationslarger males had higher reproductive success, but not in all periodsof the breeding season. Reproductive success increased withredness of the throat only in the Wohlensee population, andonly in one period that was characterized by low average success.In the Wohlensee population, the parasitic worm Pomphorhynchuslaevis is abundant, and reproductive success decreased withthe presence of the parasite. In the Roche population, maleswith nests concealed in a plant had higher mating success. Thesenests were less likely to fail, suggesting that females preferredto spawn in concealed nests because of higher offspring survivorship.The different sexual traits appear to reveal different aspectsof male quality (multiple message hypothesis): females probablyfind large males attractive because of their higher paternalquality, but it seems more likely that red males are preferred forbetter genetic qualities. Females also discriminate on territoryquality, and male traits may be important in competition forthese territories. The correlates of reproductive success werenot consistent during the season, probably due to changes inthe availability of ripe females. Such fluctuating selectionpressures will contribute to the maintenance of genetic variationin sexual traits.  相似文献
设为首页 | 免责声明 | 关于勤云 | 加入收藏

Copyright©北京勤云科技发展有限公司  京ICP备09084417号