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1.
Small nucleolar RNAs constitute a family of newly discovered non-coding small RNAs, most of which function in guiding RNA modifications. Two prevalent types of modifications are 2'-O-methylation and pseudouridylation. The modification is directed by the formation of a canonical small nucleolar RNA-target duplex. Initially, RNA-guided modification was shown to take place on rRNA, but recent studies suggest that small nuclear RNA, mRNA, tRNA, and the trypanosome spliced leader RNA also undergo guided modifications. Trypanosomes contain more modifications and potentially more small nucleolar RNAs than yeast, and the increased number of modifications may help to preserve ribosome function under adverse environmental conditions during the cycling between the insect and mammalian host. The genome organisation in clusters carrying the two types of small nucleolar RNAs, C/D and H/ACA-like RNAs, resembles that in plants. However, the trypanosomatid H/ACA RNAs are similar to those found in Archaea and are composed of a single hairpin that may represent the primordial H/ACA RNA. In this review we summarise this new field of trypanosome small nucleolar RNAs, emphasising the open questions regarding the number of small nucleolar RNAs, the repertoire, genome organisation, and the unique function of guided modifications in these protozoan parasites.  相似文献
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Wyosine and its derivatives, such as wybutosine, found in eukaryotic and archaeal tRNAs, are tricyclic hypermodified nucleosides. In eukaryotes, wybutosine exists exclusively in position 37, 3'-adjacent to the anticodon, of tRNA(Phe), where it ensures correct translation by stabilizing the codon-anticodon base-pairing during the ribosomal decoding process. Recent studies revealed that the wyosine biosynthetic pathway consists of multistep enzymatic reactions starting from a guanosine residue. Among these steps, TYW1 catalyzes the second step to form the tricyclic ring structure, by cyclizing N(1)-methylguanosine. In this study, we solved the crystal structure of TYW1 from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii at 2.4 A resolution. TYW1 assumes an incomplete TIM barrel with (alpha/beta)(6) topology, which closely resembles the reported structures of radical SAM enzymes. Hence, TYW1 was considered to catalyze the cyclization reaction by utilizing the radical intermediate. Comparison with other radical SAM enzymes allowed us to build a model structure complexed with S-adenosylmethionine and two [4Fe-4S] clusters. Mutational analyses in yeast supported the validity of this complex model structure, which provides a structural insight into the radical reaction involving two [4Fe-4S] clusters to create a complex tricyclic base.  相似文献
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Histone-poly(A) hybrid molecules were used for transport experiments with resealed nuclear envelopes and after attachment of a cleavable cross-linker (SASD) to identify nuclear proteins. In contrast to histones, the hybrid molecules cannot be accumulated in resealed nuclear envelopes, and in contrast to poly(A), the export of hybrids from preloaded nuclear envelopes is completely impaired. The experiments strongly confirm the existence of poly(A) as an export signal in mRNA which counteracts the nuclear location signals (NLS) in histones. The contradicting transport signals in the hybrid molecules impair translocation through the nuclear pore complex. The failure to accumulate hybrid molecules into resealed nuclear envelopes results from the covalent attachment of polyadenylic acid to histones in a strict 11 molar ratio. This was demonstrated in control transport experiments where radiolabeled histones were simply mixed with nonlabeled poly(A) or radiolabeled poly(A) mixed with nonlabeled histones. In comparison, control uptake experiments with histones covalently linked to a single UMP-mononucleotide are strongly enhanced. Such controls exclude the conceivable possibility of a simple masking of the nuclear location signal in the histones by the covalent attached poly(A) moiety. Photoreactive histone-poly(A) hybrid analogs serve to identify nuclear envelope proteins-presumably in the nuclear pore-with molecular weights of 110, 80, and 71.4 kDa.  相似文献
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The vast majority of the ca. 100 chemically distinct modified nucleosides in RNA appear to arise via the chemical transformation of a genetically encoded nucleoside. Two notable exceptions are queuosine and pseudouridine, which are incorporated into tRNA via transglycosylation. Transglycosylation is an extremely efficient process for incorporating highly modified bases such as queuine into RNA. Transglycosylation is also a requisite process for "isomerizing" an N-nucleoside into a C-nucleoside as is the case for pseudouridine formation. Finally, transglycosylation is an attractive possibility for certain RNA editing events (e.g., pyrimidine to purine conversions) that cannot occur via the known, more straightforward enzymatic reactions (e.g., deaminations). This review discusses what is known about the mechanisms of transglycosylation for the queuine and pseudouridine RNA modifications and will speculate about a potential role for transglycosylation in certain RNA editing events.  相似文献
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From a specialized cDNA library of Giardia lamblia, 20 snoRNA-like RNAs, including 16 box C/D sRNAs and four box H/ACA sRNAs, were first identified. The sRNAs were predicted to guide a total of 11 2′-O-methylation and four pseudouridylation sites on the G. lamblia rRNAs, respectively. By using primer extension assay, seven methylation sites were precisely mapped in the G. lamblia 16S rRNA, despite its high GC content. All of the sRNA genes locate on the small intergenic regions of the G. lamblia genome and seem to be independently transcribed from their own promoters. Particularly, a cluster composed of GlsR17 and GlsR18 genes is transcribed as a dicistronic precursor, implying a mechanism of endonuclease cleavage for the maturation of the two sRNAs. The systematic identification of the sRNAs in G. lamblia has provided valuable information about the characteristics of the two major families of small guide RNAs in one of the most primitive eukaryotes and would contribute to the understanding of the evolution of small non-messenger RNA genes from prokaryotes to eukaryotes.  相似文献
6.
All known pseudouridine synthases have a conserved aspartic acid residue that is essential for catalysis, Asp-48 in Escherichia coli TruB. To probe the role of this residue, inactive D48C TruB was oxidized to generate the sulfinic acid cognate of aspartic acid. The oxidation restored significant but reduced catalytic activity, consistent with the proposed roles of Asp-48 as a nucleophile and general base. The family of pseudouridine synthases including TruB also has a nearly invariant histidine residue, His-43 in the E. coli enzyme. To examine the role of this conserved residue, site-directed mutagenesis was used to generate H43Q, H43N, H43A, H43G, and H43F TruB. Except for phenylalanine, the substitutions seriously impaired the enzyme, but all of the altered TruB retained significant activity. To examine the roles of Asp-48 and His-43 more fully, the pH dependences of wild-type, oxidized D48C, and H43A TruB were determined. The wild-type enzyme displays a typical bell-shaped profile. With oxidized D48C TruB, logk(cat) varies linearly with pH, suggesting the participation of specific rather than general base catalysis. Substitution of His-43 perturbs the pH profile, but it remains bell-shaped. The ascending limb of the pH profile is assigned to Asp-48, and the descending limb is tentatively ascribed to an active site tyrosine residue, the bound substrate uridine, or the bound product pseudouridine.  相似文献
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Pus10 is the most recently identified pseudouridine synthase found in archaea and higher eukaryotes. It modifies uridine 55 in the TΨC arm of tRNAs. Here, we report the first quantitative biochemical analysis of tRNA binding and pseudouridine formation by Pyrococcus furiosus Pus10. The affinity of Pus10 for both substrate and product tRNA is high (Kd of 30 nM), and product formation occurs with a Km of 400 nM and a kcat of 0.9 s− 1. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to demonstrate that the thumb loop in the catalytic domain is important for efficient catalysis; we propose that the thumb loop positions the tRNA within the active site. Furthermore, a new catalytic arginine residue was identified (arginine 208), which is likely responsible for triggering flipping of the target uridine into the active site of Pus10. Lastly, our data support the proposal that the THUMP-containing domain, found in the N-terminus of Pus10, contributes to binding of tRNA. Together, our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that tRNA binding by Pus10 occurs through an induced-fit mechanism, which is a prerequisite for efficient pseudouridine formation.  相似文献
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