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鸟类和蚂蚁对桃金娘种子传播的初步研究   总被引:8,自引:0,他引:8       下载免费PDF全文
在中国科学院鹤山丘陵综合开放试验站观察研究了鸟类和蚂蚁对桃金娘 (Rhodomyrtustomentosa)种子的传播。据野外观察和网捕法所捕鸟的情况可知 :红耳鹎 (Pycnonotusjocosus)和白头鹎 (P .sinensis)两种鸟传播桃金娘种子 ,白头鹎比红耳鹎的数量多。在网捕到的红耳鹎和白头鹎的粪便中收集到的桃金娘种子分别为 8.0± 3.0粒/只和 10 .0± 2 .0粒 /只。在显微镜下观察经过鸟消化道的桃金娘种子都没有破损。传播桃金娘种子的蚂蚁有全异巨首蚁 (Pheidologetiondiversus)和梅花山大头蚁 (Pheidolemeihuashanensis)。它们传播的最远距离分别为 4m和 5m ,平均为 1.1± 0 .0 9m和 1.3± 0 .0 7m。全异巨首蚁占样地蚂蚁个体总数的 6 0 .0 % ;梅花山大头蚁占个体总数的8.1% ;余下的为其他种蚂蚁。每个全异巨首蚁蚁巢平均贮藏桃金娘种子 195 .0± 82 .9粒 ,其中 73.2 %是完好种子。每个梅花山大头蚁蚁巢平均贮藏 2 8.8± 11.4粒种子 ,全部是完好种子。林窗、闲置的空旷地、植物群落交错带都有桃金娘实生苗。在阳光充足的全异巨首蚁和梅花山大头蚁蚁巢边也有桃金娘实生苗的存在  相似文献
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白喉红臀鹎Pycnonotus aungaster、白头鹎Pycnonotus saneness和红耳鹎Pycnonotus jocosus 3种鹎科鸟类为玉林市东郊挂榜山区域优势种.2005年1~5月,用网捕法捕获标本共43只,胃检法对这3种鸟类食性进行了初步分析.结果显示:3种鸟类在春季均为杂食性鸟类,以植物性食物为主,植物性食物体积比分别为:58%、75%、76%,食物类群相似指数分别为0.63、0.69、0.72.  相似文献
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红耳鹎(Pycnonotus jocosus)为华南区常见鸟类。我们在整理中国鹎科鸟类分布区变化情况时发现,2006年以来红耳鹎的地理分布范围发生较大的变化。本文收集整理了中国1976至2016年期间红耳鹎的分布信息,并利用GIS技术详细地描述分析了该物种的地理分布变化情况。结果显示,红耳鹎jocosus亚种的分布范围呈现一个辐射状的扩散趋势,且向北方地区迁移。除少数扩散属人为因素造成外,基本上都是自然扩散。本研究还初步讨论了生境选择、繁殖习性以及食性等生态特征对红耳鹎扩散的影响,并对该物种地理分布扩散可能造成的影响进行讨论。  相似文献
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The Red‐whiskered bulbul is a very successful invasive bird species. Morphological differences have been reported among individuals inhabiting the humid and dry coasts of Reunion Island, in a 30‐year‐old population. This suggests a capacity for rapid local adaptation which could explain the general invasive success of this species. However, the origin and invasion history of this population is unknown. It is therefore not possible to establish with certainty the cause of these morphological differences. Here, we investigated the invasion history of populations of Red‐whiskered bulbul established on Reunion Island, Mauritius and Oahu (three geographically similar tropical islands) to assess the link between invasion history and morphological changes in these populations. We first assessed the source(s) of the invasive populations. We then compared the morphology of the individuals between the invasive and native populations and between the dry and humid coasts of invaded islands. Finally, we inferred the invasion history of the invasive populations to investigate the role of neutral processes (e.g. founder effect and drift) on morphology. We found that the invasive populations have a similar origin and that the morphology of the individuals in these populations has diverged in a similar way from the native range, suggesting a convergent adaptation to tropical islands. Like on Reunion, we found differences in morphology between the dry and humid coasts on Mauritius. These morphological differences can be explained by invasion history on Reunion but not on Mauritius. Both neutral evolution and adaptation thus shape the morphology of invasive Red‐whiskered bulbuls.  相似文献
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