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1.
Aggresomes, inclusion bodies and protein aggregation   总被引:34,自引:0,他引:34  
Intracellular and extracellular accumulation of aggregated protein are linked to many diseases, including ageing-related neurodegeneration and systemic amyloidosis. Cells avoid accumulating potentially toxic aggregates by mechanisms including the suppression of aggregate formation by molecular chaperones and the degradation of misfolded proteins by proteasomes. Once formed, aggregates tend to be refractory to proteolysis and to accumulate in inclusion bodies. This accumulation has been assumed to be a diffusion-limited process, but recent studies suggest that, in animal cells, aggregated proteins are specifically delivered to inclusion bodies by dynein-dependent retrograde transport on microtubules. This microtubule-dependent inclusion body is called an aggresome.  相似文献
2.
重组蛋白包涵体的复性研究   总被引:18,自引:0,他引:18  
重组蛋白在大肠杆菌中的高表达往往形成不可溶、无生物活性的包涵体,需经过变性溶解后,在适当条件下复性形成天然的构象,才可恢复其生物活性.变复性实验是建立在对蛋白质体外折叠机制的了解的基础上.根据近年来对蛋白质折叠机制的认识和重组蛋白包涵体在复性方面的主要进展,论述以下3个方面的内容:1)蛋白质在细胞内的折叠机制;2)蛋白质体外折叠机制;3)蛋白质复性的策略和方法.  相似文献
3.
Subunit assembly and functional maturation of Na,K-ATPase   总被引:14,自引:0,他引:14  
4.
基于支持向量机融合网络的蛋白质折叠子识别研究   总被引:10,自引:1,他引:9       下载免费PDF全文
在不依赖于序列相似性的条件下,蛋白质折叠子识别是一种分析蛋白质结构的重要方法.提出了一种三层支持向量机融合网络,从蛋白质的氨基酸序列出发,对27类折叠子进行识别.融合网络使用支持向量机作为成员分类器,采用“多对多”的多类分类策略,将折叠子的6种特征分为主要特征和次要特征,构建了多个差异的融合方案,然后对这些融合方案进行动态选择得到最终决策.当分类之前难以确定哪些参与组合的特征种类能够使分类结果最好时,提供了一种可靠的解决方案来自动选择特征信息互补最大的组合,保证了最佳分类结果.最后,识别系统对独立测试样本的总分类精度达到61.04%.结果和对比表明,此方法是一种有效的折叠子识别方法.  相似文献
5.
The protein folding network   总被引:9,自引:0,他引:9  
The conformation space of a 20 residue antiparallel beta-sheet peptide, sampled by molecular dynamics simulations, is mapped to a network. Snapshots saved along the trajectory are grouped according to secondary structure into nodes of the network and the transitions between them are links. The conformation space network describes the significant free energy minima and their dynamic connectivity without requiring arbitrarily chosen reaction coordinates. As previously found for the Internet and the World-Wide Web as well as for social and biological networks, the conformation space network is scale-free and contains highly connected hubs like the native state which is the most populated free energy basin. Furthermore, the native basin exhibits a hierarchical organization, which is not found for a random heteropolymer lacking a predominant free-energy minimum. The network topology is used to identify conformations in the folding transition state (TS) ensemble, and provides a basis for understanding the heterogeneity of the TS and denatured state ensemble as well as the existence of multiple pathways.  相似文献
6.
The exceptional solubility in vivo (20-30%, w/v) of the silk proteins of insects and spiders is dictated by both the need to produce solid fibres with a high packing fraction and the high mesogen concentration required for lyotropic liquid crystalline spinning. A further design requirement for silk proteins is a strong predominance of hydrophobic amino acid residues to provide for the hydrophobic interactions, water exclusion, and beta-crystallite formation required to produce strong insoluble threads. Thus, the domain structure of silk proteins needs to enable nanoscale phase separation to achieve high solubility of hydrophobic proteins in aqueous solutions. Additionally, silk proteins need to avoid premature precipitation as beta-sheets during storage and processing. Here we use mapping of domain types, sizes and distributions in silks to identify consistent design features that have evolved to meet these requirements. We show that silk proteins consist of conspicuously hydrophilic terminal domains flanking a very long central portion constructed from hydrophobic blocks separated by hydrophilic ones, discussing the domain structure in detail. The general rules of construction for silk proteins based on our observations should give a useful guide to the way in which Nature has solved the problem of processing hydrophobic proteins in water and how this can be copied industrially. Following these rules may also help in obtaining adequate expression, soluble products and controllable conformational switches in the production of genetically engineered or chemically synthesized silk analogues. Thus these insights have implications for structural biology and relevance to fundamental and applied questions in material science and engineering.  相似文献
7.
The life of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco), from gene to protein to irreplaceable component of photosynthetic CO2 assimilation, has successfully served as a model for a number of essential cellular processes centered on protein chemistry and amino acid modifications. Once translated, the two subunits of Rubisco undergo a myriad of co- and posttranslational modifications accompanied by constant interactions with structurally modifying enzymes. Even after final assembly, the essential role played by Rubisco in photosynthetic CO2 assimilation is dependent on continuous conformation modifications by Rubisco activase. Rubisco is also continuously assaulted by various environmental factors, resulting in its turnover and degradation by processes that appear to be enhanced during plant senescence.  相似文献
8.
Stimulation of the weak ATPase activity of human hsp90 by a client protein.   总被引:7,自引:0,他引:7  
Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a molecular chaperone involved in the folding and assembly of a limited set of "client" proteins, many of which are involved in signal transduction pathways. In vivo, it is found in complex with additional proteins, including the chaperones Hsp70, Hsp40, Hip and Hop (Hsp-interacting and Hsp-organising proteins, respectively), as well as high molecular mass immunophilins, such as FKBP59, and the small acidic protein p23. The role of these proteins in Hsp90-mediated assembly processes is poorly understood. It is known that ATP binding and hydrolysis are essential for Hsp90 function in vivo and in vitro.Here we show, for the first time, that human Hsp90 has ATPase activity in vitro. The ATPase activity is characterised using a sensitive assay based on a chemically modified form of the phosphate-binding protein from Escherichia coli. Human Hsp90 is a very weak ATPase, its activity is significantly lower than that of the yeast homologue, and it has a half-life of ATP hydrolysis of eight minutes at 37 degrees C. Using a physiological substrate of Hsp90, the ligand-binding domain of the glucocorticoid receptor, we show that this "client" protein can stimulate the ATPase activity up to 200-fold. This effect is highly specific and unfolded or partially folded proteins, which are known to bind to Hsp90, do not affect the ATPase activity. In addition, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, which is related in both sequence and structure to the glucocorticoid receptor but which does not bind Hsp90, has no observable effect on the ATPase activity.We establish the effect of the co-chaperones Hop, FKBP59 and p23 on the basal ATPase activity as well as the client protein-stimulated ATPase activity of human Hsp90. In contrast with the yeast system, human Hop has little effect on the basal rate of ATP hydrolysis but significantly inhibits the client-protein stimulated rate. Similarly, FKBP59 has little effect on the basal rate but stimulates the client-protein stimulated rate further. In contrast, p23 inhibits both the basal and stimulated rates of ATP hydrolysis.Our results show that the ATPase activity of human Hsp90 is highly regulated by both client protein and co-chaperone binding. We suggest that the rate of ATP hydrolysis is critical to the mode of action of Hsp90, consistent with results that have shown that both over and under-active ATPase mutants of yeast Hsp90 have impaired function in vivo. We suggest that the tight regulation of the ATPase activity of Hsp90 is important and allows the client protein to remain bound to Hsp90 for sufficient time for activation to occur.  相似文献
9.
10.
beta-Site APP-cleaving enzyme (BACE) initiates the processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) leading to the generation of beta-amyloid, the main component of Alzheimer's disease senile plaques. BACE (Asp2, memapsin 2) is a type I transmembrane aspartic protease responsible for the beta-secretase cleavage of APP producing a soluble form of the ectodomain (sAPPbeta) and the membrane-bound, carboxy-terminal intermediates C99 and C89. BACE maturation involves cysteine bridge formation, N -glycosylation and propeptide removal. We investigated variants of BACE in which the disulphide bonds of the catalytic domain spanning between Cys216/Cys420, Cys278/Cys443 and Cys330/Cys380 were removed by mutagenesis. When transfected in cultured cells, these mutants showed impaired maturation. Nevertheless, a fraction of mutated protein retained both the competence to mature as well as the activity to process APP. For the generation of a functional enzyme the conserved Cys330/Cys380 bond was the most critical, whereas the two bonds between Cys216/Cys420 and Cys278/Cys443, which are typical for the membrane-bound BACE, appeared to be less important.  相似文献
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