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1.
Mammalian embryos have an intimate relationship with their mothers, particularly with the placental vasculature from which embryos obtain nutrients essential for growth. It is an interesting vascular bed because maternal vessel number and diameter change dramatically during gestation and, in rodents and primates, the terminal blood space becomes lined by placental trophoblast cells rather than endothelial cells. Molecular genetic studies in mice aimed at identifying potential regulators of these processes have been hampered by lack of understanding of the anatomy of the vascular spaces in the placenta and the general nature of maternal-fetal vascular interactions. To address this problem, we examined the anatomy of the mouse placenta by preparing plastic vascular casts and serial histological sections of implantation sites from embryonic day (E) 10.5 to term. We found that each radial artery carrying maternal blood into the uterus branched into 5-10 dilated spiral arteries located within the metrial triangle, populated by uterine natural killer (uNK) cells, and the decidua basalis. The endothelial-lined spiral arteries converged together at the trophoblast giant cell layer and emptied into a few straight, trophoblast-lined "canals" that carried maternal blood to the base of the placenta. Maternal blood then percolated back through the intervillous space of the labyrinth toward the maternal side of the placenta in a direction that is countercurrent to the direction of the fetal capillary blood flow. Trophoblast cells were found invading the uterus in two patterns. Large cells that expressed the trophoblast giant cell-specific gene Plf (encoding Proliferin) invaded during the early postimplantation period in a pattern tightly associated with spiral arteries. These peri/endovascular trophoblast were detected only approximately 150-300 microm upstream of the main giant cell layer. A second type of widespread interstitial invasion in the decidua basalis by glycogen trophoblast cells was detected after E12.5. These cells did not express Plf, but rather expressed the spongiotrophoblast-specific gene Tpbp. Dilation of the spiral arteries was obvious between E10.5 and E14.5 and was associated with a lack of elastic lamina and smooth muscle cells. These features were apparent even in the metrial triangle, a site far away from the invading trophoblast cells. By contrast, the transition from endothelium-lined artery to trophoblast-lined (hemochorial) blood space was associated with trophoblast giant cells. Moreover, the shaping of the maternal blood spaces within the labyrinth was dependent on chorioallantoic morphogenesis and therefore disrupted in Gcm1 mutants. These studies provide important insights into how the fetoplacental unit interacts with the maternal intrauterine vascular system during pregnancy in mice.  相似文献
2.
蓖麻提取物对鼠抗生育作用的实验研究   总被引:11,自引:2,他引:9  
秦晓娜  甘明哲  高平 《四川动物》2006,25(1):176-179
利用蓖麻提取物对昆明种小鼠进行了短期与长期的抗生育实验,研究发现蓖麻提取物(蓖麻油和蓖麻蛋白)对小鼠有明显的抗生育作用。蓖麻蚩白及其与蓖麻油的混合物在抗早孕方面的效果均可达到100%,蓖麻油抗着床的效果也可达到100%。蓖麻油长期抗鼠生育效果明显,在210d(正常小鼠的妊娠期是21~23d)内有效降低小鼠生育代数与产仔数,生育抑制率达80%以上。蓖麻提取物对离体小鼠子宫的影响也非常显著,通过增强小鼠子宫内部收缩有效减少着床机率。在中止妊娠的实验中发现,服用了蓖麻蛋白及其与蓖麻油的混合物的小鼠子宫内没有着床位点。  相似文献
3.
雌性川金丝猴的邀配行为与尿液雌二醇水平的关系   总被引:10,自引:1,他引:9  
2001年10~12月及2002年9月~11月,我们对上海野生动物园一群半散养条件下的川金丝猴进行了研究,记录了群体内的4只成年雌猴的邀配行为,同时收集了观察对象的晨尿,利用放射免疫法测定其中的雌二醇含量。结果显示,在未受孕的月经周期内,雌猴的邀配行为集中在雌二醇高峰前后,雌猴在卵泡期和黄体期邀配频次显著下降,说明邀配行为受雌二醇水平的调控。同一群体内不同个体的月经周期并不同步,邀配高峰互不重叠,这可能是雌猴避免相互竞争产生的结果。利用雌二醇测定结果推断受孕日期,发现进入妊娠期后雌猴仍然频繁地向雄猴邀配,并得到雄猴的响应。妊娠期内的雌二醇水平虽有波动,但都高于月经周期内排卵前的雌二醇高峰,邀配频次与雌二醇水平没有明显的相关性,因此这一时期的邀配行为不能归结为激素作用的结果,它们应该具有其它社会功能[动物学报49(6):736~741,2003]。  相似文献
4.
This paper presents an overview of the application of and risks of exposure to Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in pregnancy. It reviews the risks to the fetus by considering the hazards in terms of the three main components of an MRI system. These are the static magnetic field, the time-varying magnetic gradient fields and the pulsed radio frequency fields. The hazards discussed are biological effects, miscarriage, heating effects and acoustic noise exposure. This paper also presents a survey of MRI sites within the United Kingdom to ascertain the extent of MRI usage in pregnancy. To validate the situation of MRI in pregnancy a survey was sent to 352 MR units throughout the United Kingdom. The questions were grouped to assess (a) maternal MRI diagnosis (b) fetal MRI and (c) work practices for pregnant MRI staff. The results showed that 91% of sites were imaging pregnant women in need of diagnosis in the second and third trimester. This paper highlights that MRI can add information for fetal central nervous system abnormalities identified by ultrasound screening, however within the UK direct fetal imaging was only performed in 8% of sites. This paper indicates the need for research to be undertaken for specific MRI clinical conditions. It also advises that risk assessment for pregnant staff working in MRI is performed, and that there is a clear need for further research into the effects of MRI in pregnancy as there is a need for clear authoritive advice.  相似文献
5.
Vasoactive exposures, vascular events, and hemifacial microsomia   总被引:9,自引:0,他引:9  
BACKGROUND: Based on experimental evidence and clinical observations, hemifacial microsomia (HFM) is one of several structural anomalies that are postulated to result from vascular disruption. We collected data in a case-control study to identify whether vasoactive exposures or vascular events during early pregnancy affect the risk of HFM. METHODS: Cases with a diagnosis of HFM were identified at craniofacial centers in 26 cities across the United States and Canada, from 1996 to 2002. Controls were matched to cases by age and pediatrician practice. Mothers of 230 cases and 678 controls were interviewed about pregnancy events and exposures. Case and control mothers were compared for early pregnancy use of vasoactive medications, cigarettes, and alcohol; singleton or multiple gestation; and diabetes, hypertension, or vaginal bleeding in the first half of pregnancy. RESULTS: Odds ratios (ORs) were significantly increased for vasoactive mediation use (OR, 1.9 overall; OR, 4.2 among smokers), multiple gestations (OR, 10.5), and diabetes (OR, 6.0). Vaginal bleeding in the second trimester and heavy alcohol intake were associated with increased risks, but the estimates were based on small numbers and, therefore, are unstable. No associations were observed for cigarette smoking without vasoactive medication use, hypertension, and vaginal bleeding in the first trimester. CONCLUSIONS: The increased risks of HFM associated with vasoactive medication use, multiple gestations, diabetes, and second trimester vaginal bleeding appear collectively to support the hypothesis that vascular disruption is one etiology for HFM, because each of these factors is related to effects on blood vessels.  相似文献
6.
During two consecutive mating seasons from August 2001 to December 2002, we observed the sexual behavior of Sichuan golden monkeys in the Chengdu Zoo and the Shanghai Wild Animal Park. We collected urine samples from females in the early morning. We also measured urinary estradiol and progesterone levels using radioimmunoassay. Based on the estradiol concentration during the menstrual cycle, we discovered that the length of the menstrual cycle was 286.33 1.67 days. The length of pregnancy was about 200 days. The level of estradiol after impregnation was significantly different with the level during the ,same period in the non-receptive part of the cycle. Thus we could diagnose early pregnancy in female Sichuan golden monkeys by checking their urinary estradiol level .  相似文献
7.
Density dependence plays a key role in life-history characteristics and population ecology of large, herbivorous mammals. We designed a manipulative experiment to test hypotheses relating effects of density-dependent mechanisms on physical condition and fecundity of North American elk (Cervus elaphus) by creating populations at low and high density. We hypothesized that if density-dependent effects were manifested principally through intraspecific competition, body condition and fecundity of females would be lower in an area of high population density than in a low-density area. Thus, we collected data on physical condition and rates of pregnancy in each experimental population. Our manipulative experiment indicated that density-dependent feedbacks affected physical condition and reproduction of adult female elk. Age-specific pregnancy rates were lower in the high-density area, although there were no differences in pregnancy of yearlings or in age at peak reproduction between areas. Age-specific rates of pregnancy began to diverge at 2 years of age between the two populations and peaked at 6 years old. Pregnancy rates were most affected by body condition and mass, although successful reproduction the previous year also reduced pregnancy rates during the current year. Our results indicated that while holding effects of winter constant, density-dependent mechanisms had a much greater effect on physical condition and fecundity than density-independent factors (e.g., precipitation and temperature). Moreover, our results demonstrated effects of differing nutrition resulting from population density during summer on body condition and reproduction. Thus, summer is a critical period for accumulation of body stores to buffer animals against winter; more emphasis should be placed on the role of spring and summer nutrition on population regulation in large, northern herbivores.  相似文献
8.
体外受精-胚胎移植412个周期分析   总被引:8,自引:0,他引:8  
IVF-ET(in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer)的临床妊娠率受多种因素的影响:妇女年龄,子宫内膜厚度,促性腺激素(Gonadtropin,Gn)的用量,移植胚胎数以及胚胎质量。回顾性分析本生殖中心2000年9月到2002年7月的IVF/ICSI(intra cytoplasmic sperm injection)共412个周期。并将所有周期按照年龄分成3组,随年龄的增长3组的妊娠率分别是42.31%、33.70%、28%;子宫内膜的厚度与临床妊娠率无显著性相关;促性腺激素的用量与临床妊娠率呈负相关(P<0.05);移植胚胎数及优质胚胎数与临床妊娠率呈显著性正相关(P<0.05)。  相似文献
9.
10.
In situ hybridization and northern/slot blot analyses were used to quantify the expression of calcyclin (2A9, 5B10), osteopontin (opn, secreted phosphoprotein, 2ar) and calmodulin mRNAs in mouse tissues that support pregnancy. High-to-moderate levels of the mRNAs of all three genes were detected at discrete locations in the uterus, decidua and placenta as a function of gestation time. Calmodulin expression was constant in these tissues; calcyclin mRNA was high during early pregnancy and declined after day 8-9 of gestation; and opn mRNA was undetectable before day 7, with maximal levels on days 9-12 in each of these tissues. Calcyclin, but not opn, expression was also observed in the chorioamnion after day 12. Calcyclin was expressed throughout the decidua on day 8 but became restricted to the primary (antimesometrial) decidual zone and decidua lateralis on day 9, and the decidua capsularis after day 9. By contrast, opn mRNA was localized on day 9 to the mesometrial triangle, which contains a large population of granulated metrial gland cells, and to the decidua basalis. These two genes may serve as markers for the two types of decidual tissue. We suggest that one function of OPN, which may be an indicator of cells in the decidua that have a bone marrow genealogy, is to mediate the flux of calcium from the maternal circulation to the developing embryo.  相似文献
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