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1.
The effects of planktivorous and benthivorous fish on benthic fauna, zooplankton, phytoplankton and water chemistry were studied experimentally in two eutrophic Swedish lakes using cylindrical enclosures. In enclosures in both lakes, dense fish populations resulted in low numbers of benthic fauna and planktonic cladocerans, high concentration of chlorophyll, blooms of blue-green, algae, high pH and low transparency. In the soft-water Lake Trummen, total phosporus increased in the enclosure with fish, but in the hard-water Lake Bysjön total phosphorus decreased simultaneously with precipitation of calcium carbonate. Enclosures without fish had a higher abundance of benthic fauna and large planktonic cladocerans, lower phytoplankton biomass, lower pH and higher transparency.The changes in enclosures with fish can be described as eutrophication, and those in enclosures without fish as oligotrophication. The possibility of regulation of fish populations as a lake restoration method is discussed.This paper was presented at the XXth SIL Congress in Copenhagen in 1977.  相似文献
2.
植物的繁殖体总是面临来自各类生物(如昆虫、脊椎动物、真菌)的捕食风险。因动物捕食引起的种子死亡率影响植物的适合度、种群动态、群落结构和物种多样性的保持。种子被捕食的时间和强度成为植物生活史中发芽速度、地下种子库等特征的主要选择压力,而种子大小、生境类型等因素也影响动物对植物种子的捕食。捕食者饱和现象被认为是植物和种子捕食者之间的高度协同进化作用的结果,是限制动物破坏种子、提高被扩散种子存活率的一种选择压力。大部分群落中的大多数植物种子被动物扩散。种子扩散影响种子密度、种子被捕食率、病原体攻击率、种子与母树的距离、种子到达的生境类型以及建成的植株将与何种植物竞争,从而影响种子和幼苗的存活,最终影响母树及后代植物的适合度。种子被动物扩散后的分布一般遵循负指数分布曲线,大多数种子并没有扩散到离母树很远的地方。捕食风险、生境类型、植被盖度均影响动物对种子的扩散。植物结实的季节和果实损耗的过程也体现了其对扩散机会的适应。许多动物有贮藏植物种子的行为。动物贮藏植物繁殖体的行为,一方面调节食物的时空分布,提高了贮食动物在食物缺乏期的生存概率;另一方面也为种子萌发提供了适宜条件,促进了植物的扩散。于是,植物与贮食动物形成了一种协同进化关系,这种关系可能是自然界互惠关系(mutualism)的一种。影响幼苗存活和建成的因子包括种子贮蒇点的微生境、湿度、坡向、坡度、林冠盖度等。许多果食性动物吃掉果肉后,再将完好的种子反刍或排泄出来。种子经动物消化道处理后,发芽率常有所提高。  相似文献
3.
植物天然更新过程中种子和幼苗死亡的影响因素   总被引:38,自引:0,他引:38  
植物天然更新包括有种子搬运、种子库动态、种子萌发和幼苗定居等过程。从种子生产到幼苗定居的更新是植物生活史中最为敏感的阶段之一 ,多种因素的影响种子和幼苗的命运。其中包括 :( 1 )动物取食或病原体侵袭。种子在扩散和搬运过程中 ,易被小哺乳动物或无脊椎动物取食。蛀虫也可以使种子失去萌芽能力。病原体感染种子和幼苗 ,容易引起种子和幼苗的死亡。 ( 2 )异质生境的影响。在不同生境中 ,光照条件、土壤水分和化学成分等因子的组合严重影响种子和幼苗的命运。 ( 3 )干扰的影响。小尺度和大尺度的干扰都可以影响到植物更新时种子和幼苗的命运。林窗作为特殊的干扰体系 ,为不同种类植物提供了更新的机会。 ( 4 )繁殖体特征。种子大小、质量和保护色等特征影响种子和幼苗在更新过程中的生存。种子休眠期间 ,由于生理衰老和腐烂的原因使种子失去活力而不能萌发。 ( 5 )密度和距离制约。母株附近由于密度竞争的影响 ,种子和幼苗死亡率都较高。  相似文献
4.
The classical approach of limnologists has been to consider the interactions between lake ecosystem components as an unidirectional flow of influence from nutrients to the phytoplankton, to the zooplankton, and finally to the fish, through successive controls by physical, chemical, and biological processes (Strakraba, 1967). The effect of planktivorous fishes on zooplankton and phytoplankton communities was not recognized until the studies of Hrbáek et al. (1961), Hrbáek (1962), Brooks & Dodson (1965) and Strakraba (1965). They showed that (1) in ponds and lakes in the presence of planktivorous fishes the zooplankton communities were composed of smaller bodied species than in those lacking planktivores, and (2) the resulting small-bodied zooplankton communities affected the phytoplankton communities. Although the variability of the phytoplankton response to fish predation showed the importance of other factors (such as nutrient limitation and interspecific competition of algae), these studies emphasized that zooplankton and phytoplankton communities can be affected by the feeding selectivity of planktivorous fishes. During the last two decades, many limnological studies have focused on this dramatic impact of fish on plankton communities. The direct response of zooplankton communities to visual fish predation (i.e. particulate feeding) has been of major interest, whereas the multilevel effects of filter-feeding fish (predation on zooplankton plus grazing on phytoplankton) have been neglected. The objectives of this review are to document fish-plankton interrelationships in order to (1) provide insights into the impact of fish on plankton communities, and (2) outline mechanistic models of planktivory according to the feeding repertory and the selectivity of the fish, the adaptive responses of the plankton, and the environmental conditions.The approach adopted here is based on field and laboratory experimental results derived from the literature on tropical and temperate freshwater (occasionally marine) systems. Four types of planktivorous fish are distinguished: the gape-limited larvae and small fish species, the particulate feeders, the pump filter feeders, and the tow-net filter feeders. For each type of planktivore, the mechanisms of prey selection are analyzed from the point of view of both the predator and the prey. To investigate the main determinants of the predator feeding selectivity, and to discuss its potential effects on prey communities, the predation-act is divided into a sequence of successive events (Holling, 1966): detection, pursuit, capture, retention, and digestion for particulate feeders; and capture, retention, and digestion for filter feeders. The strengths and weaknesses of various measures of selectivity (i.e. electivity indices), as well as their appropriate usages are considered. Available prey selection models and optimal foraging theories are analyzed for the different planktivore feeding modes. Mechanistic models based on Holling's (loc. cit.) approach are proposed for each feeding mode to determine differential prey vulnerabilities and optimal diet breadth.This review has application to several fields, including general ecology, limnology, fisheries management (for example, utilization of planktonic resources, stocking, introduction, or maintenance of natural fish populations), and biological control of the eutrophication processes (biomanipulation approaches). It emphasizes the real need for more knowledge of the feeding selectivity and food utilization of planktivores. It concludes that predator and prey are mutually adapted. Thus, in most cases, study of plankton dynamics and water quality should include the assessment of fish predation and grazing pressures.  相似文献
5.
Herbivorous and carnivorous arthropods use plant volatiles when foraging for food. In response to herbivory, plants emit a blend that may be quantitatively and qualitatively different from the blend emitted when intact. This induced volatile blend alters the interactions of the plant with its environment. We review recent developments regarding the induction mechanism as well as the ecological consequences in a multitrophic and evolutionary context. It has been well established that carnivores (predators and parasitoids) are attracted by the volatiles induced by their herbivorous victims. This concerns an active plant response. In the case of attraction of predators, this is likely to result in a fitness benefit to the plant, because through consumption a predator removes the herbivores from the plant. However, the benefit to the plant is less clear when parasitoids are attracted, because parasitisation does usually not result in an instantaneous or in a complete termination of consumption by the herbivore. Recently, empirical evidence has been obtained that shows that the plant's response can increase plant fitness, in terms of seed production, due to a reduced consumption rate of parasitized herbivores. However, apart from a benefit from attracting carnivores, the induced volatiles can have a serious cost because there is an increasing number of studies that show that herbivores can be attracted. However, this does not necessarily result in settlement of the herbivores on the emitting plant. The presence of cues from herbivores and/or carnivores that indicate that the plant is a competitor- and/or enemy-dense space, may lead to an avoidance response. Thus, the benefit of emission of induced volatiles is likely to depend on the prevailing faunal composition. Whether plants can adjust their response and influence the emission of the induced volatiles, taking the prevalent environmental conditions into account, is an interesting question that needs to be addressed. The induced volatiles may also affect interactions of the emitting plant with its neighbours, e.g., through altered competitive ability or by the neighbour exploiting the emitted information.Major questions to be addressed in this research field comprise mechanistic aspects, such as the identification of the minimally effective blend of volatiles that explains the attraction of carnivores to herbivore-infested plants, and evolutionary aspects such as the fitness consequences of induced volatiles. The elucidation of mechanistic aspects is important for addressing ecological and evolutionary questions. For instance, an important tool to address ecological and evolutionary aspects would be to have plant pairs that differ in only a single trait. Such plants are likely to become available in the near future as a result of mechanistic studies on signal-transduction pathways and an increased interest in molecular genetics.  相似文献
6.
土壤种子库的结构与动态   总被引:30,自引:1,他引:29  
班勇 《生态学杂志》1995,14(6):42-47
土壤种子库的结构与动态班勇(中国林业科学院林业研究所,北京100091)StructureandDynamicsofSeedsBanksinSoil.¥BanYong(ResearchInstituteofForestry,ChineseAcadem...  相似文献
7.
张知彬 《生态学报》2001,21(3):374-384
辽东栎萌生丛零散地分布在北京山区,虽然其种子量很大,但自然状况下的实生苗非常稀少。鼠类搬运并吃掉大量散落在地表的辽东栎种子,但鼠类是否影响辽东栎的自然更新尚不清楚。本研究主要在于了解:(1)将种子埋入土层内后对辽东栎种子出苗率的影响;(2)环境因子(如坡向、地表植被等)对辽东栎种子出苗率的影响。1996年9月24日,选取5块样地(Site),在每块样地各设置1条样线(Transect),每条样线上设置若干样点(Plot),样点间隔10m,用于种子埋藏实验,在每个样点设置6条平行线(Parallel transect),间隔10cm,各埋入10粒种子,种子间隔2cm;第1、2、3、4、5、6条线的埋藏深度分别为0、2、4、6、8、10cm。分别于1997年6月15日和10月4日调查出苗情况。研究结果表明,和秋季辽东栎种子出苗率均与埋藏深度呈正相关,埋藏通过改善湿度和减少鼠类等动物的取食而增加了出苗率,其贡献分别占18%和12%。但鼠类对埋入土层内种子的取食率依然很高(87%)。辽东栎种子在阴坡和阳坡的最终出苗率都很高,但阳坡地要早于阴坡。夏季辽乐栎种子出苗率均与地表植被覆盖度负相关,地表植被可能是通过与辽东栎种子竞争水分和养分而降低辽东栎种子出苗要早于阴坡。夏季辽东栎种子出苗率均与地表植被覆盖度和高度相关不显著,从夏季到秋季,从东栎种子出苗率有所增加,主要是由于埋藏在深处或阴坡处的种子出苗较晚的缘故。  相似文献
8.
种群数学模型的基本性质   总被引:25,自引:8,他引:17  
种群数学模型的建立有赖于对生物背景的各种似是而非的假设,然而,在建模过程中,这些假定常常容易得到不当的结合和表达,常常些关于生物背景的清晰而明确的假设被不适当地处理或者甚至被抛开,事实上,即使是某些赫赫有名的种群数学模型也难以完全避免这种缺陷,这一点在我们本文中提及并讨论,要使得所建立的模型在逻辑上可信正确。我们必须确保关于其背景的各种假设得到的始终如一和恰如其分的协调组合。本本文中,我们测试了由Arditi和Michalski在1996年提出的几条建模标准,对于斑块模型,我们在他们的基础上增加了一条模型。我们同时在单种群的其他特殊情形方面的建方面增列了一些重要的标准。按照Arditi和Mchalski的标准以及其他著名的生物建模假定,我们建立了一些有意义的三维捕食-食饵种群模型(比率依赖型),我们还讨论了种群各种振动现象的建模。  相似文献
9.
Interactions of pelagic cnidarians and ctenophores with fish: a review   总被引:25,自引:7,他引:18  
Medusae, siphonophores and ctenophores (here grouped as `pelagic coelenterates') interact with fish in several ways. Some interactions are detrimental to fish populations, such as predation by gelatinous species on pelagic eggs and larvae of fish, the potential competition for prey among pelagic coelenterates and fish larvae and zooplanktivorous fish species, and pelagic coelenterates serving as intermediate hosts for fish parasites. Other interactions are positive for fish, such as predation by fish on gelatinous species and commensal associations among fish and pelagic coelenterates. The interactions range from beneficial for the gelatinous species (food, parasite removal), to negative (predation on them). We review existing information and present new data on these topics. Although such interactions have been documented frequently, the significance to either fish or pelagic coelenterate populations is poorly understood. The effects of pelagic coelenterates on fish populations are of particular interest because of the great importance of fisheries to the global economy. As fishing pressures mount, it becomes increasingly important to understand how they may influence the balance between pelagic coelenterates and fish.  相似文献
10.
濒危树种闽楠种子和幼苗生态学研究   总被引:25,自引:6,他引:19       下载免费PDF全文
吴大荣  王伯荪 《生态学报》2001,21(11):1751-1760
从1995至1998年,通过种子收集器布设、不同程度圈围的样方处理、实验室和野外发芽实验、相邻格子样方调查和土壤中种子的筛选等一系列方法,对福建罗卜岩闽楠种子质资源保护区内闽楠为优势的常绿阔叶林群落中闽楠种群的果实、种子库、种子散布、果实/种子捕良、种子萌发和幼苗存活等进行了研究。结果表明:1995至1996年果实量为116个/m^2,成熟高峰期在1996年1月中旬。1997年至1998年为103个/m^2,成熟高峰期在1997年12月中旬。1997年至1998年,绝大部分(90.1%)的果实直接从母树上掉落,低于9.5%的果实由鸟类传播。实验室的种子发芽率为93%,而在野外仅为12%。野外发芽率低多由种子霉烂引起。闽楠的种子寿命较短,其种子在次年4月初开始萌发,7月之后地面种子即丧夫活力。动物捕食不仅影响种子的存活,同时也影响幼苗的死亡率,未经圈围与样地中被取食的果实和幼苗数量有显著差异。在新形成的林窗中或远离母树均降低了果实的迁移和幼苗的死亡率。但各因素交互作用有所不同。密度相关效应发生在2-3个月的幼苗阶段,之后,密度高低对果实被取食和幼苗死亡没有显著的影响。这些结果表明,闽楠种子和幼苗经历较大的环境压力,即在高湿度生境中母树树冠下的种子不仅易受到土壤病原菌的感染,同样容易遭受动物所捕食,从而导致较低的野外种子发芽率和幼苗存活率。这是闽楠致濒的重要原因之一。  相似文献
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