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1.
Cathy H. Lucas 《Hydrobiologia》2001,451(1-3):229-246
The scyphozoan Aurelia aurita (Linnaeus) is a cosmopolitan species, having been reported from a variety of coastal and shelf sea environments around the world. It has been extensively studied over the last 100 years or so, and examination of the literature reveals three striking features: (1) the presence of populations in a wide range of environmental conditions; (2) large inter-population differences in abundance and life history patterns over large and small spatial scales; and (3) inter-annual variability in various aspects of its population dynamics. A. aurita is clearly a highly flexible species that can adapt to a wide range of environmental conditions. While various physiological and behavioural characteristics explain how A. aurita populations can take advantage of their surrounding environment, they do not explain what governs the observed temporal and spatial patterns of abundance, and the longevity or lifespan of populations. Understanding these features is necessary to predict how bloom populations might form. In a given habitat, the distribution and abundance of benthic marine invertebrates have been found to be maintained by four factors: larval recruitment (sexual reproduction), migration, mortality and asexual reproduction. The aims of this review are to determine the role of reproduction and life history strategies of the benthic and pelagic phases of A. aurita in governing populations of medusae, with special attention given to the dynamic interaction between A. aurita and its surrounding physical and biological environment.  相似文献
2.
Altered mucin expression in the gastrointestinal tract: a review   总被引:6,自引:0,他引:6  
Early studies of changes in mucin expression in disorders of the gastrointestinal tract focused on alterations in the carbohydrate chain. This review briefly considers the various mechanisms by which such alterations may come about: (a) normal variation, (b) sialic acid alterations, (c) defective assembly of carbohydrate side-chains, (d) changed expression of core proteins and (e) epithelial metaplasia. The availability of monoclonal antibodies to mucin core proteins adds a new dimension to mucin histochemistry. It is now possible to offer explanations for traditional mucin histochemical findings on the basis of lineage-specific patterns of mucin core protein expression. Changes in core protein expression are described in inflammatory, metaplastic and neoplastic disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. The possibility that mucin change could be important in the aetiology of some diseases such as ulcerative colitis and H. pylori gastritis is considered. It is more probable, however, that changes in mucin expression are secondary to reprogramming of cellular differentiation and altered cell turnover. As such they may serve as markers to explain pathogenesis and provide novel diagnostic and prognositc information.  相似文献
3.
Podocysts are cysts with stored reserves of organic compounds produced beneath the pedal discs of polyps of scyphozoans in the orders Rhizostomae (suborder Dactyliophorae) and Semaeostomae. They excyst small polyps that develop into fully active polyps (scyphistomae) capable of further podocyst production and of medusa production by strobilation. They contribute to increasing the number of polyps and also to survival through seasonal periods of reduced food availability or predation. These attributes may help support scyphozoan blooms, but as yet there are few quantitative data. Guest editors: K. A. Pitt & J. E. Purcell Jellyfish Blooms: Causes, Consequences, and Recent Advances  相似文献
4.
We examined the development of the nervous system in Aurelia (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa) from the early planula to the polyp stage using confocal and transmission electron microscopy. Fluorescently labeled anti-FMRFamide, antitaurine, and antityrosinated tubulin antibodies were used to visualize the nervous system. The first detectable FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity occurs in a narrow circumferential belt toward the anterior/aboral end of the ectoderm in the early planula. As the planula matures, the FMRFamide-immunoreactive cells send horizontal processes (i.e., neurites) basally along the longitudinal axis. Neurites extend both anteriorly/aborally and posteriorly/orally, but the preference is for anterior neurite extension, and neurites converge to form a plexus at the aboral/anterior end at the base of the ectoderm. In the mature planula, a subset of cells in the apical organ at the anterior/aboral pole begins to show FMRFamide-like and taurine-like immunoreactivity, suggesting a sensory function of the apical organ. During metamorphosis, FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity diminishes in the ectoderm but begins to occur in the degenerating primary endoderm, indicating that degenerating FMRFamide-immunoreactive neurons are taken up by the primary endoderm. FMRFamide-like expression reappears in the ectoderm of the oral disc and the tentacle anlagen of the growing polyp, indicating metamorphosis-associated restructuring of the nervous system. These observations are discussed in the context of metazoan nervous system evolution.  相似文献
5.
The purpose of the present study is to characterize the ENaC-mediated Na+ absorption in human upper airway epithelia, nasal cavity, and paranasal sinus. To perform the purpose, we obtained epithelial cells from human nasal polyp (NP) and paranasal sinus mucosa (PSM) by endoscopic surgery. We measured the short-circuit current (I(sc)) sensitive to benzamil (a specific ENaC blocker). The benzamil-sensitive I(sc) (Na+ absorption) in NP was larger than that in PSM. The mRNA expression of three subunits of ENaC was as follows: alpha>beta>gamma in both tissue, NP and MS. The mRNA expression of gamma subunit of ENaC in NP was larger than that in PSM, but no difference of mRNA expression of alpha or beta ENaC subunit between NP and PSM was detected. We found correlation of the Na+ absorption to mRNA expression of gamma ENaC in NP and PSM. Forskolin diminished the Na+ absorption associated with an increase in Cl- secretion. These observations suggest that: (1) human NP absorbs more ENaC-mediated Na+ than PSM, (2) expression of gamma ENaC in plays a key role in the ENaC-mediated Na+ absorption in NP and PSM, and (3) cAMP diminishes the ENaC-mediated Na+ absorption by stimulating Cl- secretion (diminution of driving force for Na+ absorption) in NP and PSM.  相似文献
6.
We investigated the development of Aurelia (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa) during embryogenesis and metamorphosis into a polyp, using antibody markers combined with confocal and transmission electron microscopy. Early embryos form actively proliferating coeloblastulae. Invagination is observed during gastrulation. In the planula, (1) the ectoderm is pseudostratified with densely packed nuclei arranged in a superficial and a deep stratum, (2) the aboral pole consists of elongated ectodermal cells with basally located nuclei forming an apical organ, which is previously only known from anthozoan planulae, (3) endodermal cells are large and highly vacuolated, and (4) FMRFamide-immunoreactive nerve cells are found exclusively in the ectoderm of the aboral region. During metamorphosis into a polyp, cells in the planula endoderm, but not in the ectoderm, become strongly caspase 3 immunoreactive, suggesting that the planula endoderm, in part or in its entirety, undergoes apoptosis during metamorphosis. The polyp endoderm seems to be derived from the planula ectoderm in Aurelia, implicating the occurrence of “secondary” gastrulation during early metamorphosis.  相似文献
7.
The serrated polyp-neoplasia pathway is a novel concept that has been demonstrated to differ from the conventional adenoma-carcinoma pathway. To characterize the phenotypic patterns of differentiation in colorectal serrated polyps, we examined the immunohistochemical expression profile of gastric (MUC5AC, TFF1, MUC6, GlcNAcα1 → 4Gal → R, and PDX1) and intestinal (MUC2, TFF3, and CDX2) epithelial markers in 15 hyperplastic polyps (HPs), 29 sessile serrated adenomas (SSAs),12 traditional serrated adenomas (TSAs), and 16 conventional adenomas (CAs). MUC5AC and TFF1 were upregulated in the HPs, SSAs, and TSAs. MUC6 was expressed in the HPs and SSAs. GlcNAcα1 → 4Gal → R was expressed only in the SSAs. Although MUC2 expression was preserved, TFF3 was downregulated in the HPs, SSAs, and TSAs. PDX1 was upregulated in the HPs, SSAs, and TSAs. On the other hand, CDX2 was downregulated in the HPs and SSAs. The colorectal serrated polyps showed higher expression of gastric makers than CAs. The HPs and SSAs showed gastric and intestinal mixed phenotype expression with gastric pyloric organoid differentiation and almost identical, but different from the TSAs, marker profile. PDX1 up-regulation and CDX2 down-regulation could be important for the induction of a gastric pyloric pattern of cell differentiation in colorectal serrated polyps.  相似文献
8.
Most colon cancers arise within preexisting adenomatous polyps or adenomas. The slow evolution from the non-invasive premalignant lesion, the adenomatous polyp, to invasive cancer supports a strategy of early detection. Recently, we identified unique nuclear matrix proteins (NMPs) specific for colon cancer (CC2, CC3, CC4, CC5). Most of the NMPs identified are common to all cell types, but several identified NMPs are tissue and cell line specific. The objective of this study is to describe and characterize the NMP profile of premalignant adenomatous colon polyps. Specifically when in the adenoma-carcinoma sequence four specific colon cancer NMPs, previously described, appear. Using two-dimensional (2-D) gel analysis 20 colon polyps (one juvenile polyp, six tubular adenoma (TA), seven tubulovillous adenoma (TVA), six TVA with focal high-grade dysplasia (HGD), were analyzed for the presence of four (CC2, CC3, CC4, CC5) specific NMPs. CC2 was not seen in any of the premalignant polyps. CC5 was present in only two premalignant TVA with HGD and in one TA. CC3 and CC4 were present in most adenomas. None of the NMPs were seen in the juvenile polyp, which is not considered to be a precursor of colon cancer. CC2 and CC5 are NMPs expressed at the junction of an advanced adenoma and invasive colorectal cancer. CC3 and CC4 are expressed earlier in the evolution of adenomatous polyps. Development of an assay to these proteins may serve as a new method for early detection of colorectal cancer.  相似文献
9.
Histamine H4 receptor expression is elevated in human nasal polyp tissue   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
Altered histamine metabolism is thought to be involved in the pathomechanism of nasal polyposis characterized by local eosinophil infiltration. The present study was performed to determine whether histamine receptors play a role in the effect of histamine in nasal polyp tissue. The findings suggest that the expression of H1 and H4 receptors is elevated in polyp tissue (p=0.045; p<0.001), while the level of H2 and H3 receptors is not increased significantly. The elevation of H1 and H4 receptors' expression may indicate that the histamine related mechanisms are preferentially mediated through H1 and H4 histamine receptors in the polyp tissue. Simultaneously with increased H4 receptor expression, the concentration of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) was increased significantly in polyp tissue (p=0.002). One may speculate that the H4 receptor mediated histamine effects have a role in eosinophil accumulation and activation in inflammatory diseases of the nasal and paranasal sinus mucosa, such as nasal polyposis.  相似文献
10.
To understand the mechanism of phosphate accumulation, a gene encoding polyphosphate kinase (PPK) was cloned from the genomic library of Serratia marcescens by Southern hybridization. From the nucleotide sequence of a 4 kb DNA fragment, an open reading frame of 2063 nucleotides was identified encoding a protein of 686 amino acids with molecular mass of 70 kDa. The potential CRP binding site and pho box sequence were found upstream of the putative promoter in the regulatory region. The expression of PPK resulted in the formation of inclusion bodies and the product was active at low temperature. The E. coli strain harboring plasmid pSPK5 with ppk gene increased enzyme activity of polyphosphate kinase, resulting in increased accumulation of polyphosphate in E. coli.  相似文献
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