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1.
A study of enzyme polymorphism by electrophoretical techniques permitted the genetic structure and the homogeneity degree of the plaice population present in the Abers Wrac'h and Benoit along the north-west coast of Brittany to be determined. Thirteen enzymic systems encoded by 21 loci were analysed and nine of these loci were polymorphic at the 5% level. The comparison of allelic frequencies and of observed heterozygosity h obs did not show significant differences between these two individual groups. Nei's genetic identity ( I = 0.998) and distance ( D = 0.002) as estimated from allelic frequencies showed that the plaice of the two estuaries are very similar.
Thus, the plaice of A. Wrac'h and of A. Benoit belong to the same population in which the average level of polymorphism per locus P is 47% and the observed average heterozygosity per individual H obs is 0.163 ± 0.094.  相似文献
2.
Synopsis In Nova Scotia the annual harvest of the intertidal seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum exceeds 20 000 tons. This study investigated the possible impact of removal of the seaweed on intertidal abundance of fishes and their gut contents. At sites near Lower Argyle, Nova Scotia, absolute abundance of fish in small areas with Ascophyllum removed and intact was determined with pop-up seines. Gut contents were investigated from fish collected with the seines and with trammel nets. Number and weight of fish were not significantly different between cleared and intact areas and averaged 4.6 individuals and 160 g per 400 m2 during June to October. Cunner and sculpins had more food in their guts when leaving than when entering the intertidal, but only cunner had more food in their stomachs when leaving intact areas than when leaving cleared areas. Most fish captured in the intertidal were small (< 15 cm) and of no commercial value, and the numbers of commercial species were too low to be of much value. Numbers of fish in the intertidal was significantly lower than in the shallow subtidal. This study provided no evidence for adverse effects of the removal of patches of Ascophyllum on fishes.  相似文献
3.
The structure of the seismosensory system (SSS) was studied in 23 species of 13 genera from the families Rhombosoleidae, Poecilopsettidae, and Samaridae, and a comparison and generalization of the obtained data with those published previously for the families Psettodidae and Pleuronectidae was performed. It was shown that the individual variability of SSS does not concern topography of canals, being manifested in the variation of the number of pores in particular canals. Interspecific differences also concern mainly the number of pores, and revealing these differences requires, as a rule, statistic methods. Considerable differences were found between genera, so that each of the 40 studied genera can be characterized by a unique combination of SSS characters whose polarization was established on the basis of a reduction trend of SSS transformations common for bony fish. The maximum number of plesiomorphies of SSS was found in the genus Psettodes (Psettodidae). In the framework of the family Pleuronectidae, the most generalized structure of SSS was found in representatives of the subfamily Hippoglossinae, and the most advanced, in Pleuronectinae. In the family Rhombosoleidae, the most generalized structure of SSS is in the genus Oncopterus, the remaining representatives of the family Rhombosoleidae are characterized by a different degree of its reduction. In rather closely related families Poecilopsettidae and Samaridae, SSS is considerably reduced, which may be connected with the miniatuarization of their representatives. A small number of considered characters and a high level of homoplasia hinders their use in cladistic study; however, considerable differences between the studied genera and a low interspecific variation permits for the considering of specific features of SSS as valuable diagnostic characters of genera, and the degree of reduction of this system can indicate the relative degree of advancement of a specific taxon of Pleuronectiformes.  相似文献
4.
A review of East Asian frog flounders, genus Pleuronichthys (family Pleuronectidae), recognized Pleuronichthys japonicus sp. nov. and P. cornutus (Temminck and Schlegel 1846). Pleuronichthys japonicus sp. nov. is characterized by small, dark, rounded spots or marbled markings on the ocular side of the body, rounded cycloid scales somewhat irregularly arranged, usually 12 abdominal vertebrae, 67–80 (modally 75) dorsal-fin rays, 48–59 (modally 55) anal-fin rays, and a short branch of the supratemporal lateral line usually present on both sides. Pleuronichthys cornutus is characterized by densely distributed small, dark, irregular spots on the ocular side of the body, elongate cycloid scales somewhat regularly arranged, usually 13 abdominal vertebrae, 72–88 (modally 77) dorsal-fin rays, 52–65 (modally 58) anal-fin rays, and a branch of the supratemporal lateral line usually absent on both sides. Whereas P. cornutus is distributed from Miyagi Prefecture (Tohoku District) southward along the Pacific coast of Japan to the Bungo Channel, from Akita Prefecture (Tohoku District) southward along the Sea of Japan coast through the Tsushima Strait to the East China Sea, Yellow and Bohai Seas, the Taiwan Strait, and northern Chinese coast of the South China Sea, P. japonicus is distributed from southern Hokkaido southward along the Sea of Japan and Pacific coasts of Japan to the southern East China Sea. Geographic variations were found in caudal vertebrae and anal-fin ray counts, and caudal-peduncle depth in P. cornutus, and in ocular side body coloration, body depth, and head length in P. japonicus. Pleuronichthys lighti Wu 1929 was regarded as a junior synonym of P. cornutus.  相似文献
5.
Synopsis Identifying spawning behavior in Pacific halibut, Hippoglossus stenolepis, is particularly challenging because they occupy a deep, remote environment during the spawning season. To identify spawning events, a method is needed in which direct observation by humans is not employed. Spawning behavior of seven other flatfish, species has been directly observed in their natural environment by investigators using SCUBA. All of these flatfish species display almost identical spawning behavior that follows a routine. Therefore, it is reasonable to believe that this spawning behavior occurs in other flatfish species, including Pacific halibut. As part of a larger study, we recaptured two Pacific halibut on which Pop-up Archival Transmitting (PAT) tags had been attached during the winter spawning season. Because the tags were physically retrieved, we were able to collect minute-by-minute depth records for 135 and 155 days. We used these depth data to tentatively identify spawning events. On seven separate occasions between 20 January 2001 and 9 February 2001, one fish displayed a conspicuous routine only seen during the spawning season of Pacific halibut and the routine parallels the actions of other spawning flatfish directly observed by humans using SCUBA. Therefore, we propose this routine represents spawning behavior in Pacific halibut. The second tagged fish did not display the conspicuous routine, thus challenging the assumption that Pacific halibut are annual spawners. PAT tags may prove to be a useful tool for identifying spawning events of Pacific halibut, and that knowledge may be used for improved management in the future.  相似文献
6.
Population genetic variability and phylogeographical structure of the Dover sole, Microstomus pacificus (Teleostei: Pleuronectidae), were examined along the continental slope of the north-eastern Pacific Ocean using sequences of the left domain of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region. Six sites were sampled in three primary biogeographical provinces (based on surface water temperatures), ranging from the subarctic to the warm temperate zones. Many haplotypes were discerned, totalling 90 for 110 individuals. Neighbour joining and parsimony analyses of the entire data set showed that some groups of haplotypes of adult Dover sole were widely distributed, suggesting either panmixia or homoplasy and reversals. However, a substantial number of groups of related haplotypes were geographically circumscribed, and there were significant differences among sites in the distribution of restricted haplotypes (based on a reduced number of characters), supporting geographical structure. Geographical differentiation of populations appeared to be consistent with the member-vagrant hypothesis for retention of the pelagic larvae in currents and recruitment to adult habitats, reducing long-distance dispersal. Results of this study indicate phylogeographical structure among some populations, despite extended pelagic larval periods, and apparent environmental homogeneity in the adult habitats along the continental slope.  相似文献
7.
杨敏  孔晓瑜  时伟  龚理 《动物学杂志》2018,53(6):938-950
为了解鲽科鱼类ITS2序列的多态性特征,本研究获得了鲽科10种鱼类310条ITS2序列,长度在419 ~ 486 bp之间。种内序列长度差异最小的为粒鲽(Clidoderma asperrima)(419 ~ 420 bp)和太平洋拟庸鲽(Hippoglossoides elassodon)(419 ~ 420 bp),其次为北岩鲽(Lepidopsetta polyxystra)(447 ~ 452 bp)和刺黄盖鲽(Limanda aspera)(457 ~ 463 bp),松木高眼鲽(Cleisthenes pinetorum)(452 ~ 462 bp)和圆斑星鲽(Verasper variegatus)(465 ~ 479 bp)的种内序列差异分别为10 bp和14 bp;其余4种鱼类根据长度差异(14 ~ 32 bp)分型为长(A型)、短(B型)序列类型,同时检测存在重组类型(R型),其中长度差异最大的是钝吻黄盖鲽(Pseudopleuronectes yokohamae)(454 ~ 486 bp),其次为尖吻黄盖鲽(P. herzensteini)(433 ~ 458 bp)、虫鲽(Eopsetta grigorjewi)(420 ~ 439 bp)、星突江鲽(Platichthys stellatus)(466 ~ 480 bp)。通过双参数模型(K2P)计算遗传距离可见,种内遗传距离多集中于0.002 ~ 0.027之间,仅星突江鲽和尖吻黄盖鲽因类型差异导致较高数值(0.043和0.053);不同物种间遗传距离在0.046 ~ 0.180之间。10种鱼类ITS2的GC含量为63.95% ~ 70.16%;9种鱼类的二级结构均为具有5个分支(HelixⅠ ~ Ⅴ)的闭合环状结构,仅圆斑星鲽中由于存在Helix Ⅳ变异形成Helix Ⅳ-a和Helix Ⅳ-b而具有6个分支。基于ITS2构建的鲽科10种鱼类的系统进化树显示,不同种鱼类的克隆序列均单独聚支。序列的多态性特征分析表明,在具有不同序列类型的虫鲽、星突江鲽、尖吻黄盖鲽和钝吻黄盖鲽4种鲽科鱼类中,ITS2以非协同进化的方式存在,而其他6种鱼类为协同进化;虽然存在种间K2P遗传距离小于种内的个例,但ITS2在属间不同物种的区分上具有适用性。本研究结果丰富了鲽形目鱼类的ITS2数据,也将为鱼类的核糖体RNA序列多态性的研究提供科学依据。  相似文献
8.
Winter flounder Pseudopleuronectes americanus were collected at monthly intervals from December 2009 to May 2011, to describe the pattern and seasonality of oocyte development, including: (1) the group‐synchronous transition from primary to secondary oocytes that initiates immediately after spawning, (2) the slow (months) development of vitellogenic oocytes followed by the rapid (weeks) maturation of oocytes, (3) the synchronous nature of mature oocytes ovulating, but the discrete releases of benthic eggs in batches, (4) the protracted (months) degradation of postovulatory follicles and (5) the occurrence of follicular atresia. Although fish were collected across only c. 2° latitudinal range, the spawning season was c. 1 month later in the Gulf of Maine (GOM) than on Georges Bank and in southern New England. This is probably due to lower temperatures in the GOM. These stock‐specific data regarding the time course of oogenesis are of practical value. This information is discussed in relation to measuring and interpreting elements of reproductive potential such as maturation, skipped spawning and fecundity, the response of reproductive traits by this widely distributed species to changing climate and the response by this common, marine‐estuarine species to urbanization, particularly environmental pollutants and dredging.  相似文献
9.
Populations of the flounder, Platichthys flesus , were screened for electrophoretically detectable protein variation at up to 37 loci. Atlantic and North Sea populations (subspecies flesus ) were genetically very similar to one another ( I >0.99) but different from Adriatic (subspecies italicus ) and Black Sea (subspecies luscus ) populations. The values for genetic identity between subspecies were around 0.9. Diagnostic loci enabled specimens of flesus, italicus and luscus to be differentiated from one another. Samples of flesus showed two to three times the heterozygosity levels of italicus or luscus , consistent with the greater population size of flesus . Morphological comparisons enabled populations to be categorized to subspecies. Platichthys flesus italicus and luscus are valid subspecies: the terms are not synonyms. The genetic distance data provide an estimate of divergence time of the three subspecies at about 2 My ago, an estimate that seems reasonable in the light of present knowledge concerning the recent geological histories of the Mediterranean and Black Sea basins.  相似文献
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