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1.
高温胁迫对桃和抽细胞膜透性和光合色素的影响   总被引:14,自引:0,他引:14       下载免费PDF全文
研究了桃和柚离体叶片在高温胁迫下细胞膜透性(电解质渗漏和Pi渗漏)和光合色素的变化及其与抗热性的关系。结果表明。(1)高温处理下,无论是黑暗条件下浸水24h,还是光照条件下浸水24h,两种果树的电解质和Pi渗漏都显著增加,光照有利于膜的修复;(2)高温引起Chl含量下降,Chla/b比值上升;(3)上述这些生理反应与果树的抗热性有关,可用于果树的抗热性鉴定。  相似文献
2.
人参色素细胞培养的研究   总被引:12,自引:0,他引:12  
3.
To clarify the role of cell adhesion in the specification of pigment cell lineage in sea urchin embryos, cell contacts were inhibited by Ca2+-free artificial seawater (ASW) treatment, and the number of differentiated pigment cells was examined by the method devised for the present study. Obtained results showed that inhibition of cell contacts during mid-to-late blastula stage greatly affects the number of pigment cells. Treatment with Ca2+-free ASW during 7.5–10.5h of development drastically decreased the number of pigment cells, indicating that cell adhesion during this period is indispensable for the specification of pigment cell lineage. On the other hand, the number of pigment cells were increased by the treatment during 9.5–12.5 h of development. It was suggested that this increase was caused by excess divisions of the precursor cells, that is, the division schedule of the precursor cells was altered by inhibition of cell contacts at this period. Interestingly, the number of pigment cells was a multiple of four in a majority of embryos in which pigment cells were drastically decreased in number. These findings suggest that the founder blastomeres of the pigment cell lineage are specified during 7–10 h of development, and that these blastomeres divide twice before they differentiate into pigment cells.  相似文献
4.
Vitiligo is an acquired hypomelanotic skin disorder characterised by circumscribed depigmented macules resulting from the loss of functional melanocytes from the cutaneous epidermis. Conditions that might result in epidermal oxidative stress and consequently damage to pigment cells have been reported in the skin of vitiligo patients, including low catalase activity and increases in hydrogen peroxide levels. However, the cause of the decrease in catalase activity has not been equivocally determined. Several allelic variants in the catalase gene, a number of which have deleterious effects upon the expression or function of the enzyme, have been described and the aim of the present work was to assess the relevance of catalase gene variants in patients with vitiligo. Associations between ten separate allelic variants in the catalase gene and a predisposition to vitiligo were investigated in case-control studies with 166 English patients and 169 ethnically-matched controls using DNA sequencing and restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction methods. Of the ten allelic variants analysed, only a C/T single nucleotide polymorphism in exon 9 of the catalase gene was associated with vitiligo. The C/T genotype was significantly over-represented in the vitiligo patient group compared with the control cohort. Of 166 vitiligo genotypes, 66 (39.8%) had the C/T variant compared to 45/169 (26.6%) control genotypes (P = 0.030). No evidence for an association between other allelic variants in the catalase gene and vitiligo susceptibility was found. The low catalase activity in vitiligo patient epidermis is more likely to result from environmental conditions such as inhibitory levels of hydrogen peroxide rather than allelic variations in the catalase gene which affect either expression or function of the enzyme.  相似文献
5.
Summary The hormone-induced pigment dispersion in primary cultures of xanthophores of goldfish (Carassius auratus L.) has been shown to involve the dispersion of not only carotenoid droplets but also of smooth endoplasmic reticulum. The dispersion of these organelles is inhibited by cytochalasin B and is accompanied by thinning of the cell body, thickening of the processes, and also overall changes in cellular morphology (process extension) under certain conditions. Electron microscopic examination of heavy meromyosin treated glycerinated xanthophores in scales revealed the presence of actin filaments in these cells.This work was supported, in part, by grants AM-5384 and AM-13724 from U.S.P.H.S.  相似文献
6.
Membrane specializations of the peripheral retina of the housefly (Musca domestica) are revealed in thin sections and freeze fracture/etch replicas. Septate junctions are abundant in corner areas of the pseudocone enclosure bonding: between homologous corneal pigment cells (CPC); between homologous large pigment cells (LPC); between CPC-LPC; between Semper cells (SC); between SC-CPC. Spot desmosomes are present between Semper cells. It is likely that septate junctions function as strengthening adhesions in this area. A new membrane specialization similar to a continuous junction was observed between retinular cells of the same or adjacent ommatidium. This junction has indistinct septa in the 115 A intermembrane cleft and is intermittent in character. When this junction is absent, the apposed cells gape apart. In freeze fracture studies, this junction is characterized by bridges composed of fused membrane particles and randomly arranged particles on the P face, and noncorresponding grooves on the E face. The ridges are elongate and roughly parallel and sometimes they form enclosures. Mitochondria line up along these junctions, often within 90 A of the unit membrane. This membrane specialization has characteristics of tight and continuous junctions. In line with previous findings, we suggest that this junction assists in retinular cell orientation, possibly in enforcing the ommatidial twist and in maintaining localized ionic concentration gradients between retinular cells.  相似文献
7.
The evolution of photoreceptor cells and eyes in Metazoa is far from being resolved, although recent developmental and structural studies have provided strong evidence for a common origin of photoreceptor cells and existence of sister cell types already in early metazoans. These sister cell types are ciliary and rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells, depending on which part of each cell is involved in photoreception proper. However, a crucial point in eye evolution is how the enormous structural diversity of photoreceptor cells and visual systems developed, given the general molecular conservation of the photoreceptor cells. One example of this diversity can be observed in Annelida. Within the polychaetes the errant forms, taxon Aciculata, constitute the only group possessing true multicellular eyes in the adult stage. Thus far these organs have been investigated only in taxa of Phyllodocida, a subgroup of Aciculata. Data on Eunicida and Amphinomida as well as certain phyllodocidan taxa had been lacking. The ultrastructure of these adult eyes was investigated in various species of errant polychaetes, belonging to Amphinomidae, Eunicidae and Hesionidae, to elucidate whether they provide any phylogenetic clues regarding either the evolution of visual systems in Annelida or lophotrochozoan phylogeny in general. These eyes are composed of numerous supportive pigment cells and rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells and sometimes additional cell types. As a rule the pigment and rhabdomeric cell types form a continuous epithelium in which the two types intermingle. Presence of granules with shading pigment in sensory cells is a common feature but is apparently restricted to a taxon comprising Phyllodocida and Eunicida s. str. Very likely a lens-like structure does not belong to the ground pattern of annelid eyes, despite its presence in Phyllodocida. These lens-like structures are formed by secretions or cellular processes of the pigment cells. In many species the eye cup communicates with the exterior via a small cuticularized canal. This canal is interpreted as a rudiment due to the mode of formation in the epidermis. With respect to current phylogenetic hypotheses, these multicellular eyes have either been developed in the stem species of a taxon Aciculata nested within the polychaetes or have been evolved in the stem lineage of Annelida. Similarities to gastropod eyes are interpreted as convergent and not as indication of common origin. Except for the photoreceptor cells proper, the structure of the adult eyes in polychaetes most likely does not help to resolve lophotrochozoan phylogeny.  相似文献
8.
Melanophores are pigmented cells capable of quick colour changes through coordinated transport of their intracellular pigment granules. We demonstrate the involvement of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3-K) in Xenopus and Labrus aggregation by the use of the PI3-K inhibitor, LY-294002. In Xenopus, wortmannin-insensitive PI3-K was found to be essential for the aggregation, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation and tyrosine phosphorylation of a 280-kDa protein, and for the maintenance of low cyclic adenosine 3′:5′-monophosphate (cAMP) during the aggregated state. Pre-aggregated cells disperse completely to LY-294002 at 50–100 μM, involving a transient elevation in cAMP due to adenylate cyclase (AC) stimulation or to inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE). The inactive analogue LY-303511 did not induce dispersion at the same concentrations. PDE4 and/or PDE2 was found to be involved in melanosome aggregation. The similar kinetics of LY-294002 and various PDE inhibitors indicates that the elevation of cAMP might be due to inhibition of PDE. In Labrus melanophores, LY-294002 had a less dramatic effect, probably due to less dependence on PDE in regulation of cAMP levels. In Xenopus aggregation, we suggest that melatonin stimulation of the Mel1c receptor via Gβγ activates PI3-K that, directly or indirectly via MAPK, activates PDE.  相似文献
9.
A Ciona intestinalis cDNA clone that encodes a protein highly homologous to other tyrosinases was isolated. Northern blot analysis showed that expression of Ciona tyrosinase starts at the early neurula stage and continues throughout the tail-bud and tadpole larval stages. The earliest tyrosinase expression was detected, by in situ hybridization, at the neural plate stage, in pigment precursor cells located along the two neural folds, in the animal region of the embryo. In the course of embryonic development the strong hybridization signal was always localized, within the rostral part of the developing brain, in the pigment precursor cells and was later detected in the otolith and ocellus. These results are discussed in relation to tyrosinase as an early marker of neural induction.  相似文献
10.
高温胁迫对桃和抽细胞膜透性和光合色素的影响   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
研究了桃和袖离休叶片在高温胁迫下细胞膜透性(电解质渗漏和Pi渗漏)和光合色素的变化及其与抗热性的关系。结果表明。①高温处理下,无论是黑暗条件下浸水24h,还是光照条件下浸水24h,两种果树的电解质和Pi渗漏都显著增加,光照有利于膜的修复;②高温引起Chl含量下降,Chla/b比值上升;③上述这些生理反应与果树的抗热性有关,可用于果树的抗热性鉴定。  相似文献
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