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1.
手术应激与免疫抑制   总被引:22,自引:0,他引:22  
手术前后时期的心理应激和生理应激均可抑制细胞免疫功能,主要表现为T淋巴细胞和自然杀伤(natural killer,NK)细胞的数量减少和活性减弱。手术创伤越大,对免疫的抑制作用越强,因而对手术后的痊愈有明显影响。一般而言,手术应激所致的免疫抑制可以恢复,恢复的时间主要取决干手术创伤的大小。目前认为,手术引起免疫抑制的机制主要与下丘脑-垂体-肾上腺皮质轴、交感神经系统、细胞因子、阿片肽和T细胞信号分子有关。选用某些不具有免疫抑制作用的止痛药物,以及蛋白酶抑制剂,可以防治手术应激所致的免疫抑制作用。  相似文献
2.
Although oxygen is vital for all aerobic life forms, excessive levels of oxygen free radical production can lead to potentially lethal oxidative reactions. The role of superoxide dismutase is examined as an integral part of the defence against oxidative injury resulting from various physiological stresses.  相似文献
3.
Recent progress in brassinosteroid research   总被引:9,自引:0,他引:9  
The progress of investigations in recent years of the occurrence, analysis, structure/activity relationships, physiology, role in stress responses, and applications of brassinosteroids is reviewed. Their inclusion in the category of plant hormones is now widely accepted, and much more research into the effects of brassinosteroids can be expected in future.  相似文献
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不同生态稻区生态环境和栽培管理方式不同,覆膜旱作稻氮营养生理和抗逆生理与常规水作稻有些异同,尤其是体内NO3--N和NH4+-N含量及分布差异很大.杭嘉湖平原区覆膜旱作稻生长前期受干热天气影响,其分蘖期、拔节期、孕穗期体内NO3--N含量较水作稻有不同程度的降低,而NH4+-N含量则极显著提高;金衢盆地覆膜旱作稻孕穗期体内NO3--N含量比常规水作稻高,根部NH4+-N含量则显著降低,茎基部和叶片NH4+-N含量有一定增加.正常气候条件下两生态稻区覆膜旱作稻孕穗期叶片硝酸还原酶(NR)活性和谷氨酰胺合成酶(GS)活性较水作稻均有不同程度的提高;丙二醛(MDA)、可溶性糖及脯氨酸(Pro)含量与水作稻相差不大,表明不同生态稻区的覆膜旱作稻可以通过不同的栽培管理模式,促进生长发育,达到高产目的.  相似文献
6.
Recent studies indicate that the incidence and persistence of damage from coral reef bleaching are often highest in areas of restricted water motion, and that resistance to and recovery from bleaching is increased by enhanced water motion. We examined the hypothesis that water motion increases the efflux of oxygen from coral tissue thereby reducing oxidative stress on the photosynthetic apparatus of endosymbiotic zooxanthellae. We experimentally exposed colonies of Montastrea annularis and Agaricia agaricites to manipulations of water flow, light intensity, and oxygen concentration in the field using a novel mini-flume. We measured photosynthetic efficiency using a pulse amplitude modulated fluorometer to test the short-term response of corals to our manipulations. Under normal oxygen concentrations, A. agaricites showed a significant 8% increase in photosynthetic efficiency from 0.238 (± 0.032) in still water to 0.256 (± 0.037) in 15 cm s−1 flow, while M. annularis exhibited no detectable change. Under high-ambient oxygen concentrations, the observed effect of flow on A. agaricites was reversed: photosynthetic efficiencies showed a significant 11% decrease from 0.236 (± 0.056) in still water to 0.211 (± 0.048) in 15 cm s−1 flow. These results support the hypothesis that water motion helps to remove oxygen from coral tissues during periods of maximal photosynthesis. Flow mitigation of oxidative stress may at least partially explain the increased incidence and severity of coral bleaching in low flow areas and observations of enhanced recovery in high-flow areas.  相似文献
7.
1. Many lizards will lose their tail through autotomy as an antipredator device even though there must be significant costs during tail regeneration.
2. Parasites are energetically costly to the host, and may reduce the rate of cell regeneration. The relation between the presence of haemogregarines (phylum Sporozoa) and the rate of tail regeneration in the Common Lizard Lacerta vivipara (Jacquin) was examined.
3. Experimentally induced autotomy in parasitized lizards resulted in a significantly reduced rate of tail regeneration compared with non-parasitized lizards. On the other hand, tail loss was not associated with an abnormal increase of parasite load, suggesting that the physiological stress (induced by tail loss) did not cause a decrease in parasite defence.  相似文献
8.
Physiological stress associated with toluene exposure in batch cultures of Pseudomonas putida 54G was investigated. P. putida 54G cells were grown using a continuous vapor phase feed stream containing 150 ppmv or 750 ppmv toluene as the sole carbon and energy source. Cells were enumerated on non-selective (R2A agar plates) and a selective minimal medium incubated in the presence of vapor phase toluene (HCMM2). Differential recovery on the two media was used to evaluate bacterial stress, culturability and loss of toluene-degrading capability. A majority of the bacteria were reversibly stressed and could resume active colony formation on selective medium after passage on non-selective medium. A small fraction of the bacterial cells suffered an irreversible loss of toluene degradation capability and were designated as Tol variants. Numbers of stressed organisms increased with duration of toluene exposure and toluene concentration and coincided with accumulation of metabolic intermediates from incomplete toluene degradation. Respiring cell numbers in the batch cultures decreased as injury increased, indicating a possible relationship between respiring and injured cells. Rate expressions for injury, for formation of Tol variants and for growth of Tol variants were determined by calibrating a theoretical model to the results obtained. These rate expressions can be used to calibrate bioreactor models, and provide a basis for better design and control of bioremediation systems. Received 01 July 1996/ Accepted in revised form 25 March 1997  相似文献
9.
蚕豆蚜种群动态与蚕豆生理变化的关系   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1       下载免费PDF全文
本文以蚕豆和蚕豆蚜构成的人工种间关系系统为对象,研究了蚜虫种群动态和植物生理变化的关系。发现蚕豆生理应激过程能影响蚕豆蚜种群的生殖率、存活率等种群特征,从而调节其种群的动态。蚕豆还能传导放大昆虫种群自主调节的信息。蚜虫种群的适应过程,包括减小种群数量(低生殖率和迁移),降低对植物的胁迫,从而维持种间关系系统的持续发展。本文还初步将植物的生理应激过程与昆虫种群的动态过程相耦联,建立动态模型,对种间关系的发展趋势进行了分析和讨论。  相似文献
10.
Impact of pitching rate on yeast fermentation performance and beer flavour   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:0  
The volumetric productivity of the beer fermentation process can be increased by using a higher pitching rate (i.e. higher inoculum size). However, the impact of the pitching rate on crucial fermentation and beer quality parameters has never been assessed systematically. In this study, five pitching rates were applied to lab-scale fermentations to investigate its impact on the yeast physiology and beer quality. The fermentation rate increased significantly and the net yeast growth was lowered with increasing pitching rate, without affecting significantly the viability and the vitality of the yeast population. The build-up of unsaturated fatty acids in the initial phase of the fermentation was repressed when higher yeast concentrations were pitched. The expression levels of the genes HSP104 and HSP12 and the concentration of trehalose were higher with increased pitching rates, suggesting a moderate exposure to stress in case of higher cell concentrations. The influence of pitching rate on aroma compound production was rather limited, with the exception of total diacetyl levels, which strongly increased with the pitching rate. These results demonstrate that most aspects of the yeast physiology and flavour balance are not significantly or negatively affected when the pitching rate is changed. However, further research is needed to fully optimise the conditions for brewing beer with high cell density populations.  相似文献
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