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持久性有机污染土壤的植物修复及其机理研究进展   总被引:6,自引:0,他引:6  
随着人类对化学品的依赖程度越来越高,环境的有机污染状况也越来越严重.有机污染土壤的植物修复是指利用植物在生长过程中,吸收、降解、钝化有机污染物的一种原位处理污染土壤的方法,具有应用成本低、生态风险小、对环境副作用小等特点.本文综述了近年来国内外有机污染土壤的植物修复研究进展情况,重点介绍了多氯联苯、多环芳烃、农药和硝基芳香化合物等持久性有机污染物的植物修复,阐述了有机污染土壤植物修复的关键机制,并分析了该技术在实际工程应用中的局限性及应考虑的因素.最后,指出了今后该领域的重点研究方向.  相似文献
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Hexachlorobenzene (HCB), one of twelve compounds classified as persistent organic pollutants (POP), is a byproduct of the manufacture of organochlorine compounds, and is a cause of environmental contamination in several parts of the world. Its degradation by Brazilian basidiomycetes was studied through chromatographic analyses and monitoring of the production of 14CO2 from [14C]HCB in the soil. Nineteen strains of basidiomycetes were found to be capable of tolerating concentrations of 5000 to 50,000 mg of HCB kg–1 of soil. In spite of the low rates of production of 14CO2, Psilocybe cf. castanella CCB444 and Lentinus cf. zeyheri CCB274 were capable of removing nearly 3150 and 1400 mg of HCB kg–1 from respective soil samples, during a 65-day study period.  相似文献
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Extractable organohalogens (EOX) are organic compounds that contain chlorine, bromine and/or iodine, which can be separated from the matrix by liquid/liquid or liquid/solid extraction. A combination of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and solvent extraction methods has been developed for the determination of EOX from the shrimpPandalus borealis. Levels of EOX were evaluated for spatial trends for shrimp caught in several areas off the Labrador coast, off the coast of Nova Scotia, and off the coast of Maine. Muscle contained 1.09–6.05 Μg EOCl/g tissue and 105–498 Μg extractable organochlorine (EOCl)/g lipid; 0.0607–0.288 Μg extractable organobromine (EOB)r/g tissue and 4.74-10.5 Μg EOBr/g lipid; and 0.014–0.048 Μg extractable organoiodine (EOI)/g tissue and 1.03–1.76 Μg EOI/g lipid, respectively. The levels of EOC1 in roe were 1.60–12.34 Μg/g tissue and 39.0-146 Μg/g lipid. In roe, the EOBr levels were 0.707–1.03 Μg/g tissue and 6.96–13.5 Μg/g lipid; and EOI levels were 0.123–0.349 Μg/g tissue and 1.42–4.11 Μg/g lipid. The EOCl, EOBr, and EOI levels in roe increased noticeably from north to south along the coast of Labrador. Samples taken from the coast of Maine and from Canso Hole were typically higher in EOCl levels than those taken from Labrador. The results for EOBr and EOI were in the same range as those from Labrador.  相似文献
4.
Some cyclic organo-chlorines share key characteristics to a significant degree, notably volatility, solubility in lipids, environmental persistence, a tendency to bioaccumulation, and toxicity to animals. A subset of this group has been designated "persistent organic pollutants" (POPs). Because of their volatility, persistence, and tendency to bioaccumulate, POPs are found in remote locations, such as the Arctic, far from the locations where they were initially used or produced.
Except PCDDs (dioxins) and PCDFs (furans), all are, or were, originally produced for use as such , mainly as pesticides or herbicides. PCDDs and PCDFs have never been produced for their own sake; they are unwanted contaminants of chemical intermediates that were passed on and incorporated in final products, notably herbicides; they are also generated spontaneously in most combustion processes and chlorine bleaching of paper. Most POPs have been sharply restricted or banned outright in most of the industrialized countries, but not in less developed countries.
The qualities of persistence and bioaccumulation give special urgency to monitoring not only point source emissions and local concentrations, but also the mobile environmental reservoirs and exposure routes of these chemicals. To conduct adequate risk analyses, far more detailed data is needed on quantities produced and used, quantities and location of storage, mode of use, location of use, and period of use. Such data are not collected consistently by government or international agencies.  相似文献
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Mid-latitude glaciers represent one of the most important archive of environmental and atmospheric data. In the absence of summer melting, the accumulation of snow on the upper part of mountain chains can allow preservation of the chemical, isotopic and insoluble mineral dust composition of the atmosphere in stratigraphic sequence. The European Alps are located in an area of intense human impact, lying in between some of the most industrialized countries of the world (Italy, France, Germany) and facing the Mediterranean basin. Ice cores recovered from alpine sites above 4000 m a.s.l., where the mean annual temperature is normally below −10 °C, allow obtaining precious environmental records. While low-accumulation high-altitude sites provide the longest alpine sequences (Colle Gnifetti, Italian Alps), high-accumulation sites as Col du Dome (CDD, French Alps) and Colle del Lys (CDL, Italian Alps), both located about 4250 m a.s.l. are suitable for obtaining information about the seasonal variability of some compounds. We synthesize in this work the main results from alpine ice cores investigations held by various authors, focusing on high-altitude–high-accumulation sites in particular. Behind the seasonal natural variability of the data, all records point out an unequivocal anthropogenic contribution to mid-troposphere pollution during the second half of the 20th century. These changes could have been associated also to modifications of the mean long-range atmospheric circulation patterns within the Mediterranean basin.  相似文献
6.
李峰  丁长青 《动物学杂志》2006,41(2):128-134
持久性有机污染物(POPs)是高残留物质,进入生物体后会长期存留并产生危害。近年来,有关生物体中POPs的研究已成为环境化学、生态毒理学研究的热点之一。本文概述了持久性有机污染物(POPs)的主要类型、生态特征、来源和污染效应。介绍了POPs在鸟类体内富集的特点及其对鸟类的危害;分析了以鸟类作为环境监测指示生物时应注意的问题;对POPs的防治以及利用鹭类等水鸟监测环境污染的方法提出了建议。  相似文献
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